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Fetus

the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

Embryo

An organism in the earliest stage of development

Zygote

fertilized egg

Gamete

a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes

Teratogens

environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

a group of alcohol-related birth defects that include physical and mental problems

Huntington's Disease

an autosomal dominant condition characterized by forgetfulness and irritability

Klinefelter's Syndrome

males with XXY sex chromosomes

Downs Syndrome

mental retardation associated with extra copy of chromosome 21

Chromosome

a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order

Genetics

the scientific study of heredity

Maturation

(medicine) the formation of morbific matter in an abscess or a vesicle and the discharge of pus

Critical Period

an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development

Plasticity

the property of being physically malleable

Assimilation

the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure

Accommodation

the act of providing something (lodging or seat or food) to meet a need

Schemas

conceptual frameworks a person uses to make sense of the world

Object Permanence

the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

Egocentrism

attempting to get personal recognition for yourself (especially by unacceptable means)

Conservation

the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources

Animism

the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls

Reversibility

the quality of being reversible in either direction

Cognitive Maps

mental representations of how a physical space is organized

Personal Fable

the part of adolescent egocentrism that involves an adolescent's sense of uniqueness and invincibility

Abstract Thinking

capacity to understand hypothetical concepts

Attachment Theory

the study of the innate tendency to seek out closeness to caretakers in the face of stress

Mary Ainsworth

Strange Situation

4 Strange Situation Experiment concepts

Secure, Avoidant, Resistant/Ambivalent, Disorganized

Secure

not likely to fail or give way

Avoidant

child ignores the mother

Resistant/Ambivalent

child passively or actively shows hostility towards parent

Disorganized

lacking order or methodical arrangement or function

Stranger Anxiety

the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age

Imprinting

a learning process in early life whereby species specific patterns of behavior are established

Harry Harlow's theory

contact comfort

Kagan's theory

Infant Temperament

Infant Temperament

Easy
slow to warm up
Difficult

Vygotsky 's theory

sociocultural development

sociocultural development

the role of social and language in the child's development

Gender Identity and Gender Typing

gender identity = self-perception as masc. or fem.; gender typing = encompasses identity, stereotyping and gender role

Social Learning Theory

the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

Gender Schema Theory

children acquire a cultural concept of what it means to be female or male and adjust their behavior accordingly.

Nature v. Nurture

name for a controversy in which it is debated whether genetics or environment is responsible for driving behavior

Authoritarian Parenting Style

a parenting style where parents are highly demanding and controlling, with little or no affection

Authoritative Parenting Style

A parenting style tending to have reasonably high demands for child compliance coupled with emotional warmth.

Permissive Parenting Style

a parenting style that allows freedom, lax parenting that doesn't set limits or enforce rules constantly

Puberty

the time of life when sex glands become functional

Menarche

the first occurrence of menstruation in a woman

Alzheimer's Disease

a disease that results in the progressive loss of an individual's memory and mental capacity.

Crystallized vs. Fluid Intelligence

knowledge and verbal skills that you accumulate as you age vs. the ability to reason abstractly and solve new problems

Margaret Mead

United States anthropologist noted for her claims about adolescence and sexual behavior in Polynesian cultures (1901-1978)

Stages Theories

View behavior change from a process perspective. Focuses on transitions.

Stages Theorist

Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, Carol Gilligan, Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson,

James Marcia

psychologist who developed the four stages of identity statuses

Kübler-Ross

theorist who proposed that terminally Ill patients go through a series of stages as they approach death.

Jean Piaget's stage theory

Children's cognitive development advances in a series of four stages involving qualitatively distinct types of mental operations.

Jean Piaget's 4 Stages

Sensorimotor Stage, Pre-Operational Stage, Concrete Operational Stage, Formal Operational Stage

Sensorimotor Stage

Piaget's term for the level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses

Pre-Operational Stage

in Piaget's theory, the stage during which a child learns to use language but does not yet think logically

Concrete Operational Stage

the stage lasting from about ages 6 or 7 to 11, children can think logically about concrete events and objects.

Formal Operational Stage

According to Piaget, the stage of cognitive development during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

Lawrence Kohlberg's stage theory

Stages of morality development presented boys moral dilemmas and studied their responses and reasoning processes in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is "Heinz" who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he steal the medication and why?

3 Stages of Morality

Preconventional Morality, Conventional Morality, Postconventional Morality

Preconventional Morality

before age 9, children show morality to avoid punishment or gain reward

Conventional Morality

by early adolescence, social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake

Postconventional Morality

Affirms people's agreed-upon rights or follows personally perceived ethical principles

Carol Gilligan's stage theory

moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relationships rather than laws and principles. Their reasoning was merely different, not better or worse

Sigmund Freud's stage theory

Psychosexual Stages Theory

5 Psychosexual Stages

Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital

Erik Erikson's stage theory

Psychosocial Stages

Psychosocial Stages

Periods of life characterized by specific social milestones to be achieved

8 Psychosocial Stages

Intimacy v Isolation, Generativity v Stagnation, Integrity v Despair, Trust v Mistrust, Autonomy v Shame/doubt, Initiative v Guilt, Industry v Inferiority, Identity v Role Confusion

Intimacy vs. Isolation

Erikson's stage in which individuals form deeply personal relationships, marry, begin families

Generativity vs. Stagnation

maturity is achieved, establish and guide the next generation and come to terms with one's dream and accomplishments

Integrity vs. Despair

Erikson's final stage in which those near the end of life look back and evaluate their lives

Trust vs. Mistrust

Erikson's first stage during the first year of life, infants learn to trust when they are cared for in a consistent warm manner

Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt

Erikson's stage in which a toddler learns to exercise will and to do things independently; failure to do so causes shame and doubt

Initiative vs. Guilt

Erikson's third stage in which the child finds independence in planning, playing and other activities

Industry v Inferiority

Erikson's fourth stage in which children direct their energy toward mastering knowledge & intellectual skills the danger at this stage involves feeling incompetent & unproductive

Identity v Role Confusion

Erikson's name for the crisis of adolescence.

James Marcia's stage theory

Identity Crisis

Kübler-Ross's stage theory

Stages of Death and Dying

5 Stages of Death and Dying

Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, Acceptance

Denial

renunciation of your own interests in favor of the interests of others

Anger

the state of being angry

Bargaining

the negotiation of the terms of a transaction or agreement

Depression

a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity

Acceptance

the act of taking something that is offered

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