Greek word for "gospel"
meaning of the word "gospel"
accession of a new emperor
The word "gospel" was used in Graeco-Roman literature for announcements such as the _______________________.
save His people
In Jewish writings the cognate verb (Greek euangelizomai) is used in announcing the come of the LORD to __________.
life, death, resurrection
In the NT, the noun "gospel" means the Christian message about the coming ______, _______, & ________ of Jesus.
C. H. Dodd
scholar who recognized a skeletal outline (or pattern) in the evangelistic speeches in the book of Acts; showed that each books came to be called Gospels, for they were an extended narrative form of the gospel message which the early Christians proclaimed
Greek for "proclamation" or "preaching"
Peter's sermon to Cornelius in Acts 10:34-43 provides a good example of the ____________ content of the gospel.
refers to the analysis of a document in order to discover the literary sources that underlie it
Source criticism addresses this question: How do we explain the close verbal agreement among the __________ Gospels (Matt, Mark, Luke).
The English word "synoptic" comes from the Greek word synopsis, which means ________________.
The Synoptic Problem is concerned with the __________________________ of Matthew, Mark, and Luke to each other as well as certain hypothetical sources.
Almost every modern scholar agrees that there must be a _________ relationship among the Gospels.
similarity in wording, similarity in order, similarity in parenthetical material, similarity in biblical quotations
reasons that modern scholars base their theory that there must be a literary relationship among the Gospels
___% of Mark is paralleled in Matthew.
Only ___ of Mark's eighty-eight stories are missing from Matthew.
___% of Mark is paralleled in Luke.
H. Riesenfeld; B. Gerhardsson
_________________ and _____________ have championed the Oral Tradition Hypothesis.
Oral Tradition Hypothesis
hypothesis that suggests resemblances derive from rapid crystallization of the tradition about Jesus in a more or less fixed oral form, which later came to be written down
Matthew wrote first; Mark used Matthew; Luke used Matthew & Mark
In the Augustinian Hypothesis, the ________ order is the chronological order.
W. R. Farmer
_______________ is the leading advocate of the Griesbach Hypothesis (Two Gospel Hypothesis). He revived the hypothesis of the eighteenth century German scholar J. J. Griesbach.
"to see together"
the meaning of the term "synoptic"
W. R. Farmer arranged the first three Gospels in _______________.
Matthew wrote first; Luke wrote second, using Matthew's Gospel; Mark wrote an abbreviated combination of Matthew and Luke
order of the Griesbach Hypothesis
H. J. Holtzmann
scholar who established the Two Source Hypothesis (Mark-Q Hypothesis)
Mark wrote first; Matthew and Luke use Mark independently, as well as another source called "Q"
order of the Two Source Hypothesis
meaning of the German word "Quelle"
author of The Four Gospels: A Study in Origins; his views are associated with the Four Source Hypothesis
Mark wrote first; Matthew was second and used Mark and Q; Luke was third and used Mark and Q; both Matthew and Luke had access to another source. Matthew had access to a source called M and Luke had access to another source called L
order of the Four Source Hypothesis
Mark, Q, M, L
four sources of the Four Source Hypothesis
rejects the existence of Q and argues that Luke used Matthew
view of the Farrer Hypothesis
who the Farrer Hypothesis is associated with
refers to the investigation of the gospel traditions in order to learn about the situation in which they circulated during the oral period
the oral period
the period between the resurrection of Jesus and the writing of the canonical Gospels
pronouncement stories; miracle stories; sayings and parables; legends; the passion story
different categories of pericopes in form criticism
After most scholars agreed about the literary relationship among the Gospel, scholars turned to investigate the ______ period with preceded the written text.
New Testament scholars were influenced by the Old Testament scholar ________ _________, who sought to establish the original settings for the Psalms.
Many form critics took on ___________________ presuppositions and ended up arguing that the early Church created many of the stories of Jesus to meet their current needs.
"the Situation in Life"
Sitz im Leben
Martin Dibelius; K. L. Schmidt; Rudolf Bultmann
radical scholars who took on anti-supernatural suppositions
refers to the investigation of the gospel tradition in order to learn about the situation in which they were written down into our canonical gospels
Redaction criticism builds on the conclusions of _______ criticism and _______ criticism.
Redaction criticism was practiced from the _____s onward.
It is possible to do redaction criticism with _______ or ____________ presuppositions.
the leading living conservative redaction critic
redaction critic famous for doing ground-breaking work on Luke
redaction critic famous for doing ground-breaking work on Mark
redaction critic famous for doing ground-breaking work on Matthew
The Gospels are _________ of the life of Jesus.
the classical biographies of the classical period
The Gospels are called "Gospels" because they ______ the gospel - the story of who Jesus was and what he did.
the original eyewitnesses were dying out
a practical reason for why the Gospels were written
to communicate the gospel message to those who were not yet believers
an evangelistic reason for why the Gospels were written
to teach those who followed Jesus more about their faith
a didactic reason for why the Gospels were written
to spread the eyewitness testimony further afield
a geographic reason for why the Gospels were written
"modern critical" studies of the Gospels
"rigorous systematic historical study that is as objective as possible"
first period of modern study of the Gospels; during this period, scholars debated the literary relationship among the Gospels
second period of modern study of the Gospels; during this period, scholars focused on the oral period behind the literary sources
third period of modern study of the Gospels; during this period, scholars focused on the individual perspective and editorial work of the Evangelists as they recorded the stories about Jesus
time period of source criticism
1919 and following
time period of form criticism
time period of redaction criticism
From the 1970s forward, a variety of _______ disciplines have applied their methods to the study of the Gospels.
secular studies of this type look at the relationship of early Christians to their broader society in terms of wealth, poverty, the role of women, etc.
It is extremely difficult to do a sociological study from ______________________ so this discipline presents limited insights into the New Testament.
secular approach to the Gospels that looks for ancient rhetorical patterns in the Gospels that will help us understand what the original writer wanted to convey
A rhetorical criticism type of study presents the danger of ______________ classical rhetorical categories on the text.
literary or narrative criticism
secular study of the Gospels using the same tools as those used in the study of modern fiction
secular approach of Gospel study that seeks to determine the way readers understand the text, regardless of what the author intended