5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Thyroid Gland
- Releasing Hormone
- Digestive Cells
- a Located near the lower part of the larynx, this endocrine gland secretes the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Both of these hormones are derived from the same amino acid and are synthesized with iodine atoms. Thyroid-stimulating hormones (TSH) regulates the release of the thyroid hormones. Release of TSH from the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by the hypothalamus. The thyroid gland is important because it promotes human development because it produces calcitonin which stimulates the transfer of calcium ions from the blood to the bone. The thyroid hormones help maintain normal heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. They also stimulate enzymes that are associated with glucose oxidation, oxygen consumption, generating heat, and increasing cellular metabolic rates. Lastly, they promote carbohydrate usage over fat usage for energy.
- b Modified fatty acids that are secreted by most cells. They accumulate in areas where tissues are disturbed or injured. Some reduce blood pressure, and others raise blood pressure. Some cause smooth muscles to contract while still others cause smooth muscles to relax. Some even cause fever. Aspirin and acetaminophen reduce fever and decrease pain by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
- c Endocrine cells within the walls of some digestive organs also secrete a variety of hormones that control digestive processes. Some examples of these hormones include gastrin and secretin.
- d Stimulate the anterior pituitary to make and secrete hormones.
- e Proteins that bind to specific signal molecules that cause the cell to respond.
5 Multiple choice questions
- Promotes the production of glucose from proteins making usable energy available to cells.
- An androgen secreted by the testes that regulates male secondary sex characteristics. It also, along with FSH, stimulates sperm production.
- A group of sex hormones secreted by the testes.
- Another way to maintain homeostasis is a positive feedback loop. In this process, release of an initial hormone stimulates release or production of other hormones or substances which stimulate further release of the initial hormone.
- It is caused by insulin deficiency in the body. This condition means that cell are unable to obtain glucose, resulting in abnormally high blood glucose readings.
5 True/False questions
Pineal Gland → One of these is located over each kidney and each has an inner core, the medulla and the outer layer, the cortex. The medulla and cortex function as separate endocrine glands. Secretion of hormones in the medulla is controlled by the nervous system while hormones in the anterior pituitary regulate secretion of hormones in the cortex. The cortex responds specifically to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
Hypothyroidism → When there is a deficiency in thyroid hormones. Symptoms of this include: growth retardation, lethargy, weight gain, and low heart rate and body temperature. It can also cause cretinism, a form of mental retardation.
Steroid Hormones → Stimulate the anterior pituitary to make and secrete hormones.
Hormones → Substances that are released by cells that act to regulate the activity of other cells in the body.
Endocrine Glands → Ductless organs that secrete hormones either into the bloodstream or into the extra-cellular fluid or liquid around the cell.