5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Epinephirine & Norepinephrine
- Neurosecretory Cells
- a Nerve cells that secrete hormones. The axons of these cells in the hypothalamus extend into the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Oxytocin and ADH are transported through these axons into the posterior pituitary where they are stored for eventual release into the bloodstream.
- b The area of the brain that coordinates many activities of the nervous and endocrine systems. It receives information from other brain regions and then responds to these signals as well as to blood concentrations of circulating hormones.
- c Modified fatty acids that are secreted by most cells. They accumulate in areas where tissues are disturbed or injured. Some reduce blood pressure, and others raise blood pressure. Some cause smooth muscles to contract while still others cause smooth muscles to relax. Some even cause fever. Aspirin and acetaminophen reduce fever and decrease pain by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
- d When there is a deficiency in thyroid hormones. Symptoms of this include: growth retardation, lethargy, weight gain, and low heart rate and body temperature. It can also cause cretinism, a form of mental retardation.
- e These amino acid-based hormones produced in the adrenal medulla are also known as adrenaline and noradrenaline. These hormones work together to orchestrate the nervous system's reaction to stress and its "fight-or-flight" reaction response to danger. When a person is stressed the medulla secretes both hormones into the bloodstream. They increase heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose level, and blood flow to the heart and lungs. They also stimulate enlargement of the bronchial tubes and dilation of the pupils.
5 Multiple choice questions
- One of these is located over each kidney and each has an inner core, the medulla and the outer layer, the cortex. The medulla and cortex function as separate endocrine glands. Secretion of hormones in the medulla is controlled by the nervous system while hormones in the anterior pituitary regulate secretion of hormones in the cortex. The cortex responds specifically to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
- This gland is located near the base of the brain and it secretes melatonin.
- Abnormal thyroid overactivity can be detrimental to the body's metabolism. Overproduction of the thyroid hormones has some symptoms, such as: overactivity, weight loss, and high blood pressure, and heart rate, and body temperature. It can be treated with medication or by surgically removing part of the thyroid gland.
- It mostly contains exocrine cells, but specialized cells in the pancreas call the islets of Langerhans, function as an endocrine gland.
- Promotes the production of glucose from proteins making usable energy available to cells.
5 True/False questions
Release-Inhibiting Hormone → These inhibit production and secretion of anterior-pituitary hormones.
Positive Feedback → One way to maintain homeostasis inside an organism or cell, is a negative feedback loop. In this process the final step in a series of events inhibits the initial signal in the series.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) → A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary stimulates secretion of sex hormones from the gonads. It stimulates the secretion of estrogen and progesterone in females. In males it stimulates the testes to secrete a group of sex hormones called androgens. An example of an androgen is testosterone.
Gastrin → A hormone secreted by digestive cells that stimulates other stomach cells to release digestive enzymes such as hydrochloric acid.
Thyroid Gland → It is located beneath the sternum and between the lungs. It plays a role in the development of the immune system. This gland secretes thymosin.