5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Thyroid Gland
- Exocrine Glands
- a A hormone secreted by digestive cells that stimulates other stomach cells to release digestive enzymes such as hydrochloric acid.
- b An amino acid-based hormone that regulates the level of sugar in the blood. It does this by stimulating body cells, especially muscles, to store glucose or use it for energy. It is secreted by the pancreas.
- c Excessive insulin causes this, a disorder that causes glucose to be stored rather than used and properly delivered to body cells. This leads to lowered blood glucose concentrations and subsequent release of glucagon and epinephrine. Symptoms include lethargy, dizziness, nervousness, overactivity, and in extreme cases, unconsciousness and death.
- d Located near the lower part of the larynx, this endocrine gland secretes the hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Both of these hormones are derived from the same amino acid and are synthesized with iodine atoms. Thyroid-stimulating hormones (TSH) regulates the release of the thyroid hormones. Release of TSH from the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by the hypothalamus. The thyroid gland is important because it promotes human development because it produces calcitonin which stimulates the transfer of calcium ions from the blood to the bone. The thyroid hormones help maintain normal heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. They also stimulate enzymes that are associated with glucose oxidation, oxygen consumption, generating heat, and increasing cellular metabolic rates. Lastly, they promote carbohydrate usage over fat usage for energy.
- e Secrete substances through ducts (basically tubes). These substances can be water, enzymes, and mucus.
5 Multiple choice questions
- These sex hormones are stimulated to be produced by LH and FSH in females. In preparation for a possible pregnancy, these sex hormones cause the monthly release of an egg by an ovary and buildup of the uterine lining. Estrogen also regulates female secondary sex characteristics.
- A group of neuropeptides that regulate emotions, influence pain, and affect reproduction.
- Proteins that bind to specific signal molecules that cause the cell to respond.
- Another way to maintain homeostasis is a positive feedback loop. In this process, release of an initial hormone stimulates release or production of other hormones or substances which stimulate further release of the initial hormone.
- Nerve cells that secrete hormones. The axons of these cells in the hypothalamus extend into the posterior lobe of the pituitary. Oxytocin and ADH are transported through these axons into the posterior pituitary where they are stored for eventual release into the bloodstream.
5 True/False questions
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) → A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary stimulates secretion of sex hormones from the gonads. It stimulates the secretion of estrogen and progesterone in females.
Enkephalins → A group of neuropeptides that inhibits pain messages traveling towards the brain.
Digestive Cells → Endocrine cells within the walls of some digestive organs also secrete a variety of hormones that control digestive processes. Some examples of these hormones include gastrin and secretin.
Release-Inhibiting Hormone → Stimulate the anterior pituitary to make and secrete hormones.
Adrenal Gland → One of these is located over each kidney and each has an inner core, the medulla and the outer layer, the cortex. The medulla and cortex function as separate endocrine glands. Secretion of hormones in the medulla is controlled by the nervous system while hormones in the anterior pituitary regulate secretion of hormones in the cortex. The cortex responds specifically to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.