Biology Ch. 14

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Terms from chapter 14; Biology Honors.

speciation

the evolution of a new species

macroevolution

evolutionary change on a grand scale, encompassing the origin of new taxonomic groups, evolutionary trends, adaptive radiation, and mass extinction

taxonomy

the branch of biology concerned with identifying, naming, and classifying species

biological species concept

the definition of a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the potential in nature to interbreed and produce fertile offspring; also called a sexual species

morphological species concept

the idea that species are defined by measurable anatomical criteria

ecological species concept

the idea that ecological roles (niches) define species

phylogenetic species concept

the idea that species are defined as a set of organisms with a unique genetic history

reproductive barrier

a biological feature of a species that prevents it from interbreeding with other species even when populations of the two species live together

temporal isolation

a type of prezygotic barrier between species; the species remain isolated because they breed at different times

habitat isolation

a type of prezygotic barrier between species; the species remain isolated because they breed at different habitats

behavioral isolation

a type of prezygotic barrier between species; two species remain isolated because individuals of neither species are sexually attracted to individuals of the other species

mechanical isolation

a type of prezygotic barrier between species; the species remain isolated because structural differences between them prevent fertilization

gametic isolation

a type of prezygotic barrier between species; the species remain isolated because male and female gametes of the different species cannot fuse or they die before they unite

hybrid inviability

a type of postzygotic barrier between species; the species remain isolated because hybrid zygotes do not develop or hybrids do not become sexually mature

hybrid sterility

a type of postzygotic barrier between species; the species remain isolated because hybrids fail to produce functional gametes

hybrid breakdown

a type of postzygotic barrier between species; the species remain isolated because the offspring of hybrids are weak or infertile

allopatric speciation

the formation of a new species as a result of an ancestral population's becoming isolated by a geographic barrier

sympatric speciation

the formation of a new species as a result of a genetic change that produces a reproductive barrier between the changed population (mutants) and the parent population

polyploid

an organism whose cells have more than two complete sets of chromosomes

adaptive radiation

the emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced to new and diverse environments

gradualism model

the view that evolution occurs as a result of populations becoming isolated from common ancestral stock and gradually becoming genetically unique as they are adapted by natural selection to their local environments; Darwin's view of the origin of species

punctuated equilibrium

the idea that speciation occurs in spurts followed by long periods of little change

exaptation

a structure that has evolved in one environmental context and later becomes adapted for a different function in a different environmental context

evo-devo

the research field that combines evolutionary biology with developmental biology

paedomorphosis

the retention of juvenile body features in an adult

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