US History 1877-1900: Politics and Government

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Praxis II (0941/5941) Study Aid

Morrison Waite

born 1816, appointed 7th chief justice in 1874 by pres. Grant from ohio, private study of law with his father, a whig and instrumental in organizing the republican party in ohio, was appointed to serve as one of the U.S.'s attorneys in the arbitration to settle the alabama claims against England, in SC known to be a "plain" writer, his most famous opinion was Munn v. Illinois, served until 1888

Anna Dickinson

Supporter of women's suffrage; first woman to speak before Congress

J. Ellen Foster

established the Woman's National Republican Association in 1888 and built it into an organizing machine for the Republican Party

Susan B. Anthony

Social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation

Patrons of Husbandry

a group organized in 1867, the leader of which was Oliver H. Kelley. It was better known as the Grange. It was a group with colorful appeal and many passwords for secrecy. The Grange was a group of farmers that worked for improvement for the farmers.

Grand Old Party

Known as the GOP, another way of identifying the Republican Party

Prohibition Party

A venerable third party still in existence that has persistently campaigned for the abolition of alcohol but has also introduced many important reform ideas into American politics.

Greenback Party

The party opposed the shift from paper money back to a specie-based monetary system because it believed that privately owned banks and corporations would then reacquire the power to define the value of products and labor. Conversely, they believed that government control of the monetary system would allow it to keep more currency in circulation, as it had in the war

Populist Party

U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies

Granger Laws

A set of laws designed to address railroad discrimination against small farmers, covering issues like freight rates and railroad rebates.

Mugwumps

A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.

National Civil Service Reform League

In 1881, advocates of professionalism including Carl Schurz, E.L Godkin and Josephine Shaw Lowell, gave speeches, wrote editorials and founded this

National American Woman Suffrage Association

militant suffragist organization founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony

Frances Willard

became leader of the WCTU. She worked to educate people about the evils of alcohol. She urged laws banning the sale of liquor. Also worked to outlaw saloons as step towards strengthening democracy.

Laissez-faire

the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs

Rutherford B. Hayes

19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history

James A. Garfield

the 20th President of the US; he died two months after being shot and six months after his inauguration.

Chester A. Arthur

He was the Vice President of James A. Garfield. After President Garfield was assassinated, September of 1881, Arthur assumed the position. He was chosen to run as Vice President, primarily, to gain the Stalwart's vote. Arthur was left in charge of the United States with no apparent qualifications. He, in turn, surprised the public with his unexpected vigor in prosecuting certain post office frauds and wouldn't help the Conklingite cronies when they came looking for favors. He was also in favor of civil service reform.

Grover Cleveland

22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes

Benjamin Harrison

23rd President; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars

Spoils System

the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power

Civil Service Reform

(CAA) , Congress took action in the late 19th century to protect ethical politicians and create standards for political service; including, a civil service test for those seeking a job in government.

Pendleton Civil Service Act

1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons

Interstate Commerce Act of 1887

prohibited rebates and pools required railroads to publish rates forbade discriminatin against shippers and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line

Sherman Antitrust Act

An 1890 law that banned the formation of trusts and monopolies in the United States

Interstate Commerce Commission

created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland;regulate railroads (and later trucking) to ensure fair rates, to eliminate rate discrimination, and to regulate other aspects of common carriers.

Munn v. Illinois

1876; The Supreme Court upheld the Granger laws. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.

Wabash v. St. Louis

only the federal government can regulate interstate commerce

Pacific Railway Company v. Illinois

only federal government can regulate interstate commerce

Sound money

paper money backed by gold

Free silver

Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan

Silver issue

The issue was whether or not to use gold or silver to back the nation's currency. Debtors, miners, farmers, and other poor people advocated free silver. this would cause inflation and make paying debts easier. Bankers and big business men wanted gold because this would stabilize this nation's currency.

Bland-Allison Act

1873 law that required the federal government to purchase and coin more silver, increasing the money supply and causing inflation.

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

Required the government to purchase an additional 4.5 million ounces of silver bullion each month for use as currency.

Farmers Alliance

A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy

McKinley Tariff

1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history

Omaha Platform

the 1892 platform of the Populist party repudiating laissez-faire and demanding economic and political reform

Jacob Coxey

Populist who led Coxey's Army in a march on Washington DC in 1894 to seek government jobs for the unemployed.

Coxey's Army

unemployed workers marched from ohio to wahsington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief

United States v. E.C. Knight Company

Through this Supreme Court decision, manufacturing was declared an intrastate activity, and outside the jurisdiction of the Sherman Act, unlike Railroads

William Jennings Bryan

This Democratic candidate ran for president most famously in 1896 (and again in 1900). His goal of "free silver" (unlimited coinage of silver) won him the support of the Populist Party. Though a gifted orator, he lost the election to Republican William McKinley. He ran again for president and lost in 1900. Later he opposed America's imperialist actions, and in the 1920s, he made his mark as a leader of the fundamentalist cause and prosecuting attorney in the Scopes Monkey Trial.

Front Porch Campaign

William McKinley does not actively campaign for office and stays at his home in Canton, Ohio. He simply received pilgrimages of the Republican faithful.

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