Chapter 5

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38 terms

Phobias

excessive fears of objects or situations

High order conditioning

a previously neutral stimulus is paired with a conditioned stimulus; comes to elicit the conditioned response

Reconditioning

the quicker relearning of a conditioned response following extinction

Learning

a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience

conditional taste aversions

aversions to particular tastes; acquired via classical conditioning

conditioned response

a learned response to an originally neutral stimulus (which has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus)

condtioned stimulus

a previously neutral stimulus; comes to elicit a learned response due to repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus

extinction

the diminishing and disappearance of a conditioned response when the CS is no longer ever paired with the US

conditioned emotional reaction

an emotional response to a particular stimulus resulting from classical conditioning

unconditioned stimulus

a stimulus that elicits a response from an organism where no learning or conditioning is necessary

spontaneous recovery

the spontaneous return of a conditioned response following extinction

behavior therapy

a therapeutic application of principles regarding conditioning and learning

classical conditioning

learning, usually involving affective states, due to the pairing of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus

unconditioned response

a response by an organism to an unconditioned stimulus

stimulus discrimination

the ability to differentiate, and not respond to, stimuli that are unlike a conditioned stimulus

neutral stimulus

stimulus that initially does not elicit a response; one may be learned later through conditioning

stimulus generalization

an organism responds to a stimulus because it is similiar to the original conditioned stimulus

immune system

the system that protects the body from disease

negative reinforcement

increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again by removing an unpleasant stimulus

operant conditioning

a process of learning where consequences are crucial in determining whether or not a response will occur again

schedule of partial reinforcement

a system of reinforcement where some, but not all, responses are reinforced

computer assisted instruction

kind of programmed instruction, guiding and reinforcing the student step by step

secondary reinforcers

reinforcers that gain their reinforcing power throught being associated with a reinforcer that meets a basic need

superstious behavior

behavior acquired because a random act was accidentaly reinforced by a pleasant outcome

punishment

a consequence designed to decrease the likelihood that the behavior it follows will occur again

positive reinforcement

increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur again by introducig a desirable stimulus following the emitted response

law of effect

thorndike's principle regarding why learned behaviors reoccure

shaping

reinforcing increasingly more accurate manifestations of a learned response

behavior modification

applying operant conditioning principles in a systematic fashion to help improve behaviors

schedule of continous reinforcement

a reinforcement schedule where every desired response from an organism is reinforced

avoidance learning

responses an organism learns in order to avoid experience an unpleasant stimulus

radical behaviorism

the belief that only environment and genetics determine behavior

skinner box

an apparatus designed by B.F. Skinner in order to study and test the impact of operant conditioning principles on learning

cognitive map

a mental representation of our surroundings that helps us find our way

cognitive learning

learning by an organism that occurs without apparent direct reinforcement

insight learning

mentally working through a problem until the solution suddenlt comes to us

observational learning

also known as vicarious learning, it is learning through watching the behavior (and behavioral consequences) of others

latent learning

learnignt that occurs without reinforcement or apparent intent; the learning is only evident when reinforcement for it is provided later

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