Veterinary Medical Terminology-Cell & Gene Terms

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Cell & Gene Terms ~VETT118 Veterinary Medical Terminology San Juan College Veterinary Technician ~Veterinary Medical Terminology by: J. Romich Chapter 2 - Where, Why and What?

Cells

structural units of the body specialized and grouped together to form tissues and organs

Cyt/o

combining form for cell

Cytology

study of cell organ, cell structure, cell function and cell pathlogy

protoplasm

collectively; cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nuculus

cell membrane (plasma membrane)

structure lining the cell that protects the cells contents and regulates what goes in and out of the cell

Cytoplasm

gelatinous material located in the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus

nucleus

structure in the cell the contains nucleoplasm, chromosomes, and the surrounding membrane

Nucleoplsam

material in the nucleus

chromosomes

structures in the nucleus composed of DNA, which transmit genetic information

genetic

denotes something that pertains to genes or heredity

genetic disorder

an inherited disease or condition caused by defective genes

congenital

denotes something that is present at birth

anomaly

deviation from what is regarded as normal.

tissue

a group of specialized cells that is similar in structure and function

histology

study of structure, composition and function of the tissues

Hist/o

combining form for tissue

Epithelial tissue (epithelium)

covers internal and external body surfaces made up of tightly packed cells in a variety of arrangements

endothelium

cellular covering that forms the lining of internal organs, including the blood vessels

mesothelium

cellular covering that forms the lining of serous membranes such as the peritoneum

connective tissue

adds support and structure to the body by holding the organs in place and binding body parts together
Ex: bone cartilage, dense connective tissue, loose connective tissue and blood

adipose tissue

form of tissue also known as fat

adip/o

combining form for fat

Muscle tissue

type of tissue that contains cell material with the specialized ability to contract and relax

Nervous tissue

type of tissue that contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and conduct electrical impulses

-plasia

suffix used to describe formation, development, and growth of tissue and cell numbers

-trophy

means formation, development,and increases in the size of tissue and cells

Anaplasia

change of the structure of cells and their orientation to each-other

Aplasia

lack of development of organ, tissue or cell

Dysplasia

abnormal growth or development of an organ, tissue or cell

Hyperplasia

abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ, tissue or cell

Hypoplasia

incomplete or less than normal development of an organ, tissue or cell

Neoplasia

abnormal new growth of tissue in which multiplication of cells is uncontrolled, more rapid than normal, and progressiv

tumor

distinct mass of tissue

benign

not recurring

malignant

tending to spread and be life threatening

-oma

suffix meaning tumor or neoplasm

atrophy

decrease in size or complete wasting of an organ, tissue, or cell

Dystrophy

defective growth in the size of an organ, tissue, or cell

Hypertrophy

increase in size of an organ, tissue or cell

glands

group of specialized cells that secret used elsewhere in the body.

Aden/o

the combining form for gland

Exocrine glands

groups of cells that secrete their chemical substance directly into the bloodstream, which transports them throughout the body. Endocrine glands are ductless
Ex: thyroid, pituitary and the portion of the pancreas that secrets insulin

organ

part of the body that performs a special function

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