enlightenment period emphasize mans natural rights; enlightenment thinkers wanted constitution and parliament rather than absolute monarchy; occurred during WARS OF SUCCESSION - causes grain prices to increase and destroys agriculture business; warfare and financial crisis
What were the major factors that constituted the origins of the French Revolution?
King and queen of France when the revolution broke out. Lived very expensively, irresponsibly, and arrogantly which did not help in stopping the revolution.
Who were Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette?
He was the financial master for Louis XVI. He created tax reforms and tried to raise taxes on land and stamps.
Who was Charles-Alexander de Colonne and what was his significance?
artisans, peasants, and farmers
What social groups in France constituted the third estate?
the third estate paid most taxes
Who in France paid most taxes during the Old Regime?
estates general wanted to examine the royal expenses
What caused Louis XVI to call the Assembly of Notables in 1787?
Representative body of the three estates (nobility, clergy, third estate); French parliament
What was the Estates General?
formed after the tennis court oath between the king and the estates general; estates general became the true representatives of the state
What was the National Assembly and what was its historical role in 1789?
stressed liberty, equality, fraternity, and religious freedom; marked the start of consolidation and radicalization of the revolution
What major political principles did the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen promulgate?
third estate and SANS CULOTTES
What social groups did not want to accept social distinctions based on wealth and demanded more social equality in 1790?
Prussia and Austria Hungary signed this to give the king back full power of France
What was the Declaration of Pilnitz?
writing of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
What factors led to radicalization of the French Revolution?
ruled by Robespierre; used the guillotine to spread terror
What was the Committee of Public Safety and who led it?
began prosecuting counter revolutionary people without trial or jury but justified it in the "name of freedom"
What policy did the Committee of Public Safety carry out during its reign?
executive branch of the government created under the new constitution; it further restricted political rights; only a select few were allowed to vote; people began to want government regulation not free market
What was the Directory?
What individual emerged in 1799, after defeating the Directory, as a new leader of France?