Gram Positive Table

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Unit 3

Which organisms have a gram + cocci shape?

-Staphylococcus aureus
-Staphylococcus epidermidis
-Staphylococcus haemolyticus
-Staphylococcus saprophyticus
-Streptococcus pyogenes
-Streptococcus agalactiae
-Enterococcus faecalis
-Steptococcus pneumoniae

Which organisms have a gram + rod shape?

-Bacillus cereus
-Bacillus anthracis
-Clostridium perfringens
-Clostridium difficile
-Clostridium botulinum
-Clostridium tetani
-Listeria
-Proprionibacterium acnes
-Corynebacterium
-Nocardia asteroides
-Actinomyces israilii

Which bacteria are classified as Acid Fast?

-Mycobacterium tuberculosis
-Mycobacterium leprae

What is the host/pathogen relationship of staphylococcus aureus?

Normal flora, opportunistic pathogen

What is the POE of staphylococcus aureus?

gets in by any break in the skin

What toxins does staphylococcus produce?

Exotoxins, Enterotoxins

What virulence factors does staphylococcus have?

invasins, enterotoxins, exotoxin, Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin (TSS Toxin), Beta Lactamase, Slime Layer, Coagulase, Hyaluronidase, Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Staphylokinase/Fibrinolysin, Lipase, DNAse, Beta hemolysis,

Is staphylococcus aureus salt tolerant?

Yes, it can live on skin.

Is staphylococcus aureus desiccation tolerate?

Yes, it can be found on fomites.

What is the drug of choice for Staphylococcus Aureus?

Methicillin, unless it is a MRSA strain.

What diseases are associated with Staphylococcus Aureus?

1) Food poisoning from the ingestion of enterotoxin-contaminated food 2) Cutaneous diseases such as scalded skin syndrome, impetigo, folliculitis, and furuncles
3) Systemic diseases such as toxic shock, bacteremia, endocarditis, pneumonia, and osteomyelitis, MRSA ("mersa")

What are the symptoms of diseases associated with Staphylococcus Aureus?

1)Food poisoning: NVD, may progress to dehydration, headache, muscle cramping, and changes in blood pressure and pulse rate 2)Cutaneous diseases: Inflammed skin, pustules 3)Systemic diseases: Fever and tissue destruction

What is the host/pathogen relationship of staphylococcus epidermidis?

Normal flora, opportunistic pathogen

What is the POE for staphylococcus epidermidis?

gets in through any break in the skin

What toxins does staphylococcus epidermis produce?

none

What are the virulence factors of staphylococcus epidermidis?

-Produces a biofilm
-Quarum sensing

How is S.epidermidis different from S.Aureus?

S.epidermidis is coagulase negative and does not ferment mannitol.

How is S.epidermidis different from S.saprophyticus?

S.epidermidis is sensitive to Novobicin

What diseases does S.epidermidis cause?

wound infections

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Staphylococcus haemolyticus?

Normal flora, opportunistic pathogen

What is the POE of Staphylococcus haemolyticus?

axillae, perineum, and ingunial areas of humans

What toxins does Staphylococcus haemolyticus produce?

none

What are the virulence factors of Staphylococcus haemolyticus?

none

What diseases does Staphylococcus haemolyticus cause?

Skin infections

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Staphylococcus saprophyticus?

Normal urogenital flora

What is the POE for Staphylococcus saprophyticus?

Urinary Tract

What toxins does Staphylococcus saprophyticus produce?

None

What are the virulence factors of Staphylococcus saprophyticus?

none

Is Staphylococcus saprophyticus coagulase positive or coagulase negative?

coagulase negative

What is Staphylococcus saprophyticus resistant to?

Novobiocin

What diseases does Staphylococcus saprophyticus cause?

UTI

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Streptococcus pyogenes?

Normal flora in pharynx

What is the POE for Streptococcus pyogenes?

Upper respiratory mucus

What toxins does Streptococcus pyogenes produce?

Exotoxins, TSS toxin, Pyrogenic toxins,

What are the virulence factors of Streptococcus pyogenes?

Capsule, Invasins, Exotoxins, Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) Toxin, Pyrogenic toxins, K ag, Protein M, Streptokinase, Streptolysin, Pyrogenic toxins, Beta Hemolysis,

What are the other characteristics of Streptococcus pyogenes?

Group A; Beta hemolytic, bacitracin sensitive

Drug of choice is erythromycin

What diseases does Streptococcus pyogenes cause?

1) pharyngits 2) Scarlet fever 3)Pyoderma (Impetigo) 4) Toxic Shock Syndrome 5) Necrotizing fascitis 6) Rheumatic fever

What are the symptoms of the diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes?

1) pharyngits: Strep throat 2) Scarlet fever: Rash that begins on chest and spreads 3) Pyoderma (Impetigo): pus filled lesion on face, arms or legs 4) Toxic Shock Syndrome: Bacteremia and multisystem failure 5) Necrotizing fascitis: destroys muscle and fat tissue 6) Rheumatic fever: inflammation that leads to damage of heart valves

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Streptococcus agalactiae?

Normal GI / GU flora

What is the POE for Streptococcus agalactiae?

GI, genital, or urinary mucus

What toxins does Streptococcus agalactiae produce?

none

What are the virulence factors of Streptococcus agalactiae?

none

What are the other characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae?

-Group B; Beta hemolytic,
-most common cause of sepsis and meningitis in infants < 3 months.
-The newborn contracts it in the birth canal of a mother who has it in the vagina

What diseases are caused by Streptococcus agalactiae?

neonatal sepsis and meningitis in infants

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Enterococcus faecalis?

Normal colon flora

What is the POE for Enterococcus faecalis?

Fecal-Oral

What toxins does Enterococcus faecalis produce?

Enterotoxin

What are the virulence factors of Enterococcus faecalis?

Enteroxins, Gamma hemolysis,

What are other characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis?

Group D; Gamma hemolytic, grows on bile esculin media

What diseases are caused by Enterococcus faecalis?

nosocomial

What are the symptoms of diseases caused by Enterococcus faecalis?

NVD

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Steptococcus pneumoniae?

Normal flora of mucous membranes

What is the POE for Steptococcus pneumoniae?

Upper respiratory mucus

What toxins are produced by Steptococcus pneumoniae?

None

What are the virulence factors of Steptococcus pneumoniae?

Adhesins, K Ag, IgA or IgG Protease, Alpha hemolysis, Pneumolysin, Phosphorylcholine

What are the other characteristics of Steptococcus pneumoniae?

-No Lancefield classification, so called Viridins. DOC is erythromycin. Vaccine available

What are diseases caused by Steptococcus pneumoniae?

1) pneumonia 2) meningitis 3) endocarditis and bacteremia 4) Dental caries and plaques 5) sinusitis and otitis media (ear)

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Bacillus cereus?

Soil organism

What is the POE of Bacillus cereus?

not specified

What toxin is produced by Bacillus cereus?

Enterotoxin

What are the virulence factors of Bacillus cereus?

Motile, endospores, Enterotoxins, H Ag, Beta lactamase,

How can you be infected by Bacillus cereus?

food poisoning

What diseases are caused by Bacillus cereus?

1) Rapid-onset emetic syndrome 2) Slow onset diarrheal syndrome

What are the symptoms of diseases caused by Bacillus cereus?

1) Rapid-onset emetic syndrome: N/V within 1-5 hours after food ingestion (esp boiled rice and dairy)
2)Slow onset diarrheal syndrome: Diarrhea 8-16 hours after contaminated food ingestion (meat, vegetables, sauces, pasta, desserts, dairy)

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Bacillus anthracis?

Soil organism

What is the POE for Bacillus anthracis?

1) Inhalation of spores
2) Inoculation of spores into the body through a break in the skin
3) Ingestion of spores

What toxins does Bacillus anthracis produce?

Anthrax toxin

What are the virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis?

Non-motile, endospores, Anthrax Toxin

What diseases are caused by Bacillus anthracis?

1) Inhalation anthrax 2) Cutaneous anthrax 3) GI anthrax (ingested)

What are symptoms of diseased caused by Bacillus anthracis?

1) Inhalation anthrax: Flu-like, then labored breathing, shock, and death 2) Cutaneous anthrax: Eschar and toxemia 3) GI anthrax: Intestinal hemorrhage and death

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Clostridium perfringens?

Soil organism

What is the POE for Clostridium perfringens?

Ingestion or wound

What toxins does Clostridium perfringens produce?

Endotoxin

What are the virulence factors of Clostridium perfringens?

Motile, endospores

How can one become infected by Clostridium perfringens?

food poisoning or trauma

What are diseases caused by Clostridium perfringens?

1) Food poisoning 2) Gas gangrene (spores enter a wound)

What are symptoms of diseases caused by Clostridium perfringens?

1) NVD - Food poisoning 2) Necrosis (tissue death) wtih gas production - Gas gangrene

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Clostridium difficile?

Normal GI flora

What is the POE for Clostridium difficile?

Auto

What toxins does Clostridium difficile produce?

Endotoxin

What are the virulence factors of Clostridium difficile?

Motile, endospores

How can one be infected by Clostridium difficile?

Antibiotic complication

What diseases are caused by Clostridium difficile?

1) Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea (occurs after antibiotics are used for something else) 2) Pseudomembranous colitis

What are symptoms of diseases caused by Clostridium difficile?

1) Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea - Severe diarrhea and abdominal cramps, fever 2)Pseudomembranous colitis - Pustules throughout the colon

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Clostridium botulinum?

Soil organism

What is the POE for Clostridium botulinum?

Ingestion or wound

What toxins does Clostridium botulinum produce?

Botulism toxin

What are the virulence factors for Clostridium botulinum?

Motile, endospores

How can you get infected with Clostridium botulinum?

1) Canning foods at home, dented cans 2) Giving babies honey 3) Stepping on foreign body in soil

What diseases are caused by Clostridium botulinum?

1) Food-borne botulism 2) Infant botulism 3) Wound botulism

What are the symptoms of diseases caused by Clostridium botulinum?

1) Food-borne botulism - Progressive paralysis, death by suffocation 2) Infant botulism - Constipation, failure to thrive 3) Wound botulism - Progressive paralysis, death by suffocation

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Clostridium tetani?

Soil organism

What is the POE for Clostridium tetani?

Wound

What toxin does Clostridium tetani produce?

Tetanus toxin

What are the virulence factors of Clostridium tetani?

Motile, endospores

How can Clostridium tetani be prevented?

Tetanus toxoid

What diseases are caused by Clostridium tetani?

Tetanus

What are the symptoms of tetanus?

Spastic paralysis and death by suffocation

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Listeria?

Soil organism

What is the POE for Listeria?

Ingestion

What toxins does Listeria produce?

None

What are the virulence factors of Listeria?

Motile, NO endospores

How can infection with Listeria be prevented?

avoid undercooked vegetables, unpasteurized milk, undercooked meat, and all soft cheeses

What diseases are caused by Listeria? What are the symptoms?

Food poisoning, NVD

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Proprionibacterium acnes?

Normal skin flora

What is the POE for Proprionibacterium acnes?

Clogged sebaceus gland

What toxins does Proprionibacterium acnes produce?

None

What are the virulence factors of Proprionibacterium acnes?

Motile, NO endospores

What disease is caused by Proprionibacterium acnes? What are the symptoms?

Acne vulgaris, Pimples.

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Corynebacterium?

Normal skin flora

What is the POE for Corynebacterium?

Inhaled or skin contact

What toxin does Corynebacterium produce?

Diptheria toxin

What are the virulence factors for Corynebacterium?

Motile, NO endospores, Ribosylase, Diptheria Toxin

How can infection with Corynebacterium be prevented?

Vaccine (DPT: diptheria, pertussus, tetanus)

What disease can be caused by Corynebacterium?

Diptheria

What are the symptoms of disease caused by Corynebacterium?

Diptheria: pseudomembrane over trachea, death by suffocation

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Nocardia asteroides?

Soil organism

What is the POE for Nocardia asteroides?

Inhaled or wounds

What toxin does Nocardia asteroides produce?

None

What are the virulence factors of Nocardia asteroides?

Motile, NO endospores

What diseases are caused by Nocardia asteroides?

1) Pneumonia 2) Infected wounds 3) CNS infections

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Actinomyces israilii?

Normal oral flora

What is the POE for Actinomyces israilii?

Auto

What toxin does Actinomyces israilii produce?

none

What are the virulence factors of Actinomyces israilii?

Motile, NO endospores

How can one be infected with Actinomyces israilii?

Post-dental procedures and human bite wounds

What diseases are caused by Actinomyces israilii?

1) Maxillary osteomyelitis (Bone infection of the maxilla)
2) Infection from human bite wounds

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Mycobacterium tuberculosis?

Obligate Intracellular pathogen

What is the POE for Mycobacterium tuberculosis?

Inhaled droplets from infected person

What toxins are produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis? What are the virulence factors?

None

What is the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis composed of?

mycolic acid (acid fast)

Does Mycobacterium tuberculosis grow slow or fast in host cells?

Slow

What disease is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis? What are the symptoms?

tuberculosis: Nodules in lungs, bloody cough

What is the host/pathogen relationship of Mycobacterium leprae?

Obligate Intracellular pathogen

What is the POE for Mycobacterium leprae?

Contact with infected person

What toxins are produced by Mycobacterium leprae? What are the virulence factors?

None

What is the cell wall of Mycobacterium leprae composed of?

mycolic acid (acid fast)

Does Mycobacterium leprae grow slow or fast in host cells?

Slow

What disease is caused by Mycobacterium leprae?

Hanson's Disease (Leprosy)

What are the symptoms of Hanson's Disease (Leprosy)?

Skin anethesia, tissue distruction, disfigurement, loss of fingers/toes

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