Ear & Nose Anatomy

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(doesn't include eye anatomy)

Cochlea

Contains spiral ganglion

Helix

Outer rim of auricle

antihelix

ridge along the middle of auricle

tragus

little bump over the anterior side of external acoustic meatus

just superior to lobule

antitragus

Stapes attachment to inner ear

oval window

parts of labyrinth (inner ear)

Cochlea
vestibule
semicircular canals

normally closed, equalizes pressure during swallowing.
links middle ear to pharynx.

Auditory tube (aka Eustachian tube or
pharyngotympanic tube)

Utricle and Saccule

Parts of the membranous labyrinth, within the vestibule

Membranous Labyrinth

membrane-walled ducts and sacs lining the bony labyrinth.
Three main parts: 1) cochlear duct, 2) utricle & saccule, 3) semicircular canals

Bony Labyrinth

3 part cavity:semicircular canals, vestibule, cochlea

contained in membranous labyrinth

endolymph fluid

contained in bony labyrinth

perilymph fluid

Functions of the nose

-airway passage
-moisten & warm air
-filter air
-resonating chamber for speech
-houses olfactory receptors

Conchae & meatus

increase surface area exposed to air

nasolacrimal duct drainage

inferior meatus (below inferior conchae)

frontal sinus and maxillary sinus drainage location

through infundibulum into semilunar hiatus (middle meatus @ hiatus semilunaris)

sphenoid sinus drainage

Above the superior nasal concha
Called: sphenoethmoidal recess.
-Tilt head forward to drain

hiatus semilunaris

area in middle meatus where frontal and maxillary sinuses drain, as well as the anterior ethmoid air cells

Middle ethmoid air cell drainage

Middle meatus

Posterior ethmoid air cell drainage

superior meatus

adenoids

pharyngeal tonsils
in posterior wall of NASOpharynx
destroys pathogens

tubal tonsils

some protection from infection
located near the pharyngotympanic tube in the NASOpharynx

Epithelium of BOTH oropharynx and laryngopharynx

stratified squamous epithelium

Fauces

arch-like entranceway inside the mouth.
Extends from soft palate to epiglottis

Two tonsils of OROpharynx

palantine - lateral walls under fauces
lingual - on posterior tongue surface

Olfactory neurons

Bipolar neuron:
axons to nasal mucosa
soma (cell body) found in olfactory bulb
olfactory track -> medial temporal lobe

result of trauma, which tears fibers in cribiform plate

anosmia (no smell) associated with TBI

Olfactory

The one sense that doesn't pass through the thalmus before going to the cortex

Vestibule of the oral cavity

Space between the teeth and cheek
(gets big when you blow your cheeks out)

labial frenulum

string-like skin from the gums (gingiva) between front two teeth to the cheek
(under the tongue = lingual frenulum)

Palatopharyngeal arch

posterior to palantine tonsil

palatoglossal arch

more anterior in mouth
*Marks the boundary between mouth/pharynx

Stenson's duct

Parotid duct from parotid gland
-opens high up in the vestibule (around the second molar)

Wharton's duct

from submandibular gland
-opens under the tongue to either side of the lingual frenulum

Sublingual duct

opens along sublingual fold

Permanent teeth

8 per quadrant:
2 insisors, 1 canine, 2 premolar, 3 molar

Sensory component of Gag Reflex

CN 9

Motor component of Gag Reflex

CN 10 (Vagus)

Retropharyngeal space

area created by DEEP layers of fascia, posterior to the esophagus between the prevertebral & buccopharyngeal fascia

Fxn of retropharyngeal space

Allows the esophagus to move in relation to the vertebral column during swallowing.
Clinical significance: allows the spread of infections to the mediastinum

Occipital & retroauricular lymph nodes

both flow to the superficial cervical nodes, located along the EJV (Superficial to the SCM).

From superficial cervical nodes -> deep

submental, submandibular, buccal & parotid lymph nodes

Flow strait to deep cervical nodes

The chain of nodes along the internal jugular vein

Deep cervical nodes.
Drain into the jugular trunk -> thoracic duct or right lymphatic duct

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