normally closed, equalizes pressure during swallowing.
links middle ear to pharynx.
Auditory tube (aka Eustachian tube or
membrane-walled ducts and sacs lining the bony labyrinth.
Three main parts: 1) cochlear duct, 2) utricle & saccule, 3) semicircular canals
Functions of the nose
-moisten & warm air
-resonating chamber for speech
-houses olfactory receptors
frontal sinus and maxillary sinus drainage location
through infundibulum into semilunar hiatus (middle meatus @ hiatus semilunaris)
sphenoid sinus drainage
Above the superior nasal concha
Called: sphenoethmoidal recess.
-Tilt head forward to drain
area in middle meatus where frontal and maxillary sinuses drain, as well as the anterior ethmoid air cells
some protection from infection
located near the pharyngotympanic tube in the NASOpharynx
Two tonsils of OROpharynx
palantine - lateral walls under fauces
lingual - on posterior tongue surface
axons to nasal mucosa
soma (cell body) found in olfactory bulb
olfactory track -> medial temporal lobe
Vestibule of the oral cavity
Space between the teeth and cheek
(gets big when you blow your cheeks out)
string-like skin from the gums (gingiva) between front two teeth to the cheek
(under the tongue = lingual frenulum)
Parotid duct from parotid gland
-opens high up in the vestibule (around the second molar)
from submandibular gland
-opens under the tongue to either side of the lingual frenulum
area created by DEEP layers of fascia, posterior to the esophagus between the prevertebral & buccopharyngeal fascia
Fxn of retropharyngeal space
Allows the esophagus to move in relation to the vertebral column during swallowing.
Clinical significance: allows the spread of infections to the mediastinum
Occipital & retroauricular lymph nodes
both flow to the superficial cervical nodes, located along the EJV (Superficial to the SCM).
From superficial cervical nodes -> deep