Final Review

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Biogenous

from living organisms - Like the Ocean Floor

From which type of material does biogenous sediment form

Once-living organisms

Photosynthesis

the process by which plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into energy-rich glucose molecules

Chemosynthesis

the process by which certain microorganisms use chemical energy to produce food

Primary productivity

- the production of organic matter from inorganic substances through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis

Two factors influence the photosynthetic productivity of a region of ocean water.
The two factors are solar radiation and

availability of nutrients

Trophic level

a nourishment level in a food chain; plant and algae producers constitute the lowest level, followed by herbivores and a series of carnivores at progressively higher levels

Food chain

- a succession of organisms through which food energy is transferred, starting with primary producers

Newfoundland herring eat copepods, which are small, shrimp-like animals

Which organisms belong to the same trophic level as Newfoundland Herring?

What factors influence a region's photosynthetic productivity?

Nutrients and sunlight

Which term best describe energy transfer between trophic levels

Inefficient

Sunlight and nutrient availability are the factors influencing

Photosynthesis productivity

What limits primary productivity in tropical oceans

The availability of nutrients

What is the source of energy for chemosynthesis

Chemical compounds

What is a food web?

A complex series of feeding relationships with many organisms interacting and depending on each other

Where would a primary producer be located in a food chain

First step

Which is not a main producer of food in the ocean

Sharks

The transfer of energy between trophic levels averages about

2percent

A sequence of organisms through which energy is transferred, beginning with the primary producer, is a

food chain

What advantage do organisms in a food web have over those in a food chain?

Organisms in a food web have alternative foods to eat if one of their food sources diminishes or disappears.

During which season does primary productivity reach its peak in polar oceans

Summer

Which animal would have the greatest chance of survival?

One that fed through a food web

What happens in chemosynthesis?

Certain microorganisms in hydrothermal vents use chemical energy to create organic molecules from inorganic nutrients

As the temperature of seawater decreases, its density

Increases

In addition to salinity, what factor affects the density of seawater

Temperature

What is density?

Mass-per-unit volume

What is the second major source of elements in seawater?

Earth's interior

Salinity variations in the open ocean normally range from 33parts per thousand to...

38 parts per thousand

What is the salinity of seawater?

3.5 percent

The measure of the total amount of solid material dissolved in seawater is called

Salinity

The ocean layer of rapid temperature change with depth is known as the

Thermocline

What is the principal source of dissolved substances in the oceans

Weathering

What is the most abundant in the sea?

Sodium chloride

Most ocean water is located in which zone?

Deep zone

Which area would have the highest salinity?

An area with high rates of evaporation

One thousand grams of seawater would consist of how many grams of dissolved substances?

35

Ocean salinity is usually expressed in

Parts per thousand

Where would you find the lowest-density seawater?

Surface mixed zone

Marine mammals, marine reptiles, and most fish and squids are classified as...

Nekton

What determines whether a region of ocean water is in the intertidal zone, neritic zone, or oceanic zone?

Distance to shore

Some hydrothermal vents are called black smokers. What makes up the "black smoke

Minerals and metals precipitating from hot water as it cools

Which does not describe the ocean bottom

Lifeless

Which ocean zone is characterized by high water pressure, low temperatures, and no sunlight?

Abyssal zone

Which is a type of nekton?

Shark

How do plankton differ from nekton?

Plankton are floaters

Which is a type of plankton?

Algae

Algae can survive on the seafloor only in

Shallow areas

What term describes organisms that live on or in the ocean floor?

Benthos

Which ocean zone does sunlight penetrate

Photic zone

Why do tubeworms and hundreds of other species thrive near hydrothermal vents?

Chemicals from the vents feed bacteria which, in turn, produce sugar and other food for organisms

Which is not a factor used to divide the ocean into distinct marine life zones?

Latitude

Nekton include all animals that

Move independently of ocean currents

Organisms that drift with ocean currents are called

plankton

Which is not a category of marine organisms?

Aphotic

Marine organisms are classified according to how they

Live and move

The open ocean of any depth is called the

Pelagic zone

The earth's rotation determines the direction of gyres in both

the northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere.

How can density currents form in warm waters, such as the Mediterranean Sea?

The salinity of surface water inceases from evaporation

The rising of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface water is called

upwelling

What brings greater concentrations of dissolved nutrients to the ocean surface

Upwelling

The energy that drives Surface Ocean currents come from

WIND

Ocean currents that move toward the poles are

WARM

Surface currents are caused by friction between which two elements

The ocean surface and wind

What can cause an increase in the density of ocean water?

A decrease in temperature and a decrease in salinity

Which is not associated with upwelling?

Horizontal water movements

The influence of cold currents is mostly felt in the

Tropics all year long

What causes surface ocean currents to be deflected?

Global winds
According to the conveyor belt model of ocean circulation, what usually happens when water reaches the poles? The salinity of the water increases

The Gulf Stream affects the climate of

Great Britain

The Benguela Current, the Peru Current, and the California Current

Are cold currents

Which is true about an ocean current that is moving toward the equator?

It is cold

Which process does not decrease the salinity of water?

Formation of sea ice

Which is not associated with upwelling?

Horizontal water movements

Longshore current

a near-shore current that flows parallel to the shore, or coast

How do waves affect a beach along the ocean shoreline?

Waves constantly move sediments to, from, and along the beach

An irregular coastline includes headlands and bays. When refracting waves approach this kind of coastline, how is their erosive power distributed?

Their power is stronger on the sides and ends of headlands

How does coastal erosion affect the rocky California coast?

Wave erosion gradually breaks down the sedimentary rock

A spit

is an elongated ridge of sand that projects from the land into the mouth of an adjacent bay.

A tombolo

a ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland or to another island

Barrier Island

a low, elongated ridge of sand that parallels the coast

Which is one way that a barrier island may form?

Wave erosion separates a split from the mainland

What are groins, breakwaters, and seawalls?

Structures built to protect beaches

Wave refraction

On an irregular coastline, headlands tend to be eroded while bays tend to be lined with sandy beaches. Which process explains this difference?

Spits, bars, and tombolos all form from

Currents that deposit sand and other sediments

The purpose of the groins is to... prevent sand from leaving the beach

People sometimes build a series of groins along a beach.

wave energy is concentrated on headlands projecting into the water

One result of wave refraction is that...

How does refraction cause wave crests to move when the waves approach the shore?

Nearly parallel to the shoreline

Where do baymouth bars form across bays?

Where the currents are the weakest

Baymouth bar

A sandbar that completely crosses a bay, closing it off from the open ocean, is a...

What is a wave-cut platform?

A flat, bench-like surface

Erosion and abrasion

Which processes carve shoreline features?

Beach nourishment

Which decreases beach erosion without the construction of protective structures?

Wave-cut platform

Which is not a depositional shoreline feature?

refraction

Waves in shallow water become bent and begin to run parallel to the shoreline, a process known as

What happens to waves when there is refraction in bays?

They spread out and expand less energy

the wind

Most ocean waves obtain their energy and motion from

Wind speed, length of time the wind has blown, and fetch

Which three factors determine the characteristics of waves across a region of open ocean?

A cork is floating in the open ocean. How does the cork move as a wave passes by?

The cork moves in a circular path

Which is the stronger of the two forces that form ocean tides?

The gravitational attraction of the moon

Waves form on or near the surface of ocean water, not deep below the surface, because waves get their energy from

the wind

The characteristics of ocean waves are affected by fetch. What is fetch?

The distance that the wind travels across open ocean water

Waves slow down, become higher, and the wave front

What happens to ocean waves as they enter shallow water near the shore?

How does the sun's gravity affect tides?

It changes the size of tidal ranges in a weekly cycle.

Which factor does not help determine the height, length, and period of a wave?

Temperature

Which is not true about ocean waves?

They transfer energy without matter as a medium

Wavelength

The horizontal distance between two successive crests is called the

Wave height

The vertical distance between trough and crest is called the

Whitecaps

When waves grow so tall that they topple over, they form ocean breakers called

The wind

Most ocean waves obtain their energy and motion from

Range

The difference in height between successive high and low tides is called the tidal

Spring tide

When is the daily tidal range greatest?

Neap tide

Neap tide

Semidiurnal

Which tidal pattern has two high tides and two low tides each day?

What is fetch?

The distance that wind travels across open water

How does earth's atmosphere change with distance above the surface?

It becomes increasingly thin, eventually forming a gradual boundary with space

Which change to Earth would eliminate seasons and seasonal weather?

Removing the tilt of Earth's axis

Mixture

Which science term best describes air?

ozone

The form of oxygen that combines three oxygen atoms into each molecule is called...

Nitrogen

What is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?

Which is an example of climate?

In southern California, temperatures are generally mild and rainfall is low

The tropopause is

the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere

Most of earth's dry air is made up of

nitrogen and oxygen

Stratosphere

In which level of the atmosphere is ozone concentrated?

June 21

When does the summer solstice occur in the Northern Hemisphere?

Climate

What is a description of atmospheric conditions over a long period of time?

Which statement is true of equinoxes?

Days and nights are equal in length everywhere

Heat

is the energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in their temperatures.

Temperature

is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual atoms or molecules in a substance.

Conduction

is the transfer of heat through matter by molecular activity

Convection

is the transfer of heat by mass movement or circulation within a substance.
Much of the heat transfer that occurs in the atmosphere is carried on by convection.

Radiation

is the transfer of energy (heat) through space by electromagnetic waves

Greenhouse effect

is the heating of Earth's surface and atmosphere from solar radiation being absorbed and emitted by the atmosphere, mainly by water vapor and carbon dioxide

The atomosphere and clouds directly absorb about 20 percent of the solar radiation that strikes Earth. How does the sun indirectly warm the atmosphere?

Earth's land and sea absorb solar radiation, then reradiate in to the air

How is radiation different from conduction and convection?

Radiation can transfer energy as heat through empty space

Why are carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other greenhouse gases important to life on earth's surface?

They absorb radiant energy emitted by Earth's surface.

kinetic energy

All matter is composed of atoms or molecules that have energy of motion,which is also known as

When air transfers energy to a cooler object, what happens to the air temperatures?

It decreases

Heat is transferred from one object to the other

What happens when there is a temperature difference between two objects?

They move faster

When energy is transferred to air, what happens to the particles of air?

Differences in temperature

What causes the transfer to energy from one object to another?

Radio

Which electromagnetic waves have the longest wavelengths?

300,000 kilometers per second

Electromagnetic waves travel through space at a speed of...

Because of convection, the warmest air in a room

rises toward the ceiling

the greenhouse effect

The heating of the lower layer of the atmosphere from radiation absorbed by certain heat-absorbing gases is called

Radiation

Earth receives energy from the sun through what method of heat transfer?

... water vapor and carbon dioxide

The two most important heat-absorbing gases in the lower atmosphere are

What is not true about radiation?

It needs a medium through which to travel

Which statement is not true?

Objects that are good absorbers of radiation are good reflectors as well

Which is associated with weak light rays that travel in different directions?

Scattering

Which is an example of radiation?

Our atmosphere is constantly being heated by the sun

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