The Endocrine System

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The quizlet for the endocrine system. This test is gonna be impossible.

Endocrine Cells

Glandular secretory cells that release their secretions into the extracellular fluid

Hormones

Chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported by the bloodstream to reach target cells

Peptide Hormones

Hormones consisting of chains of amino acids

Steroid Hormones

Lipid hormones that are derived from cholesterol

Prostaglandins

Hormones that coordinate local cellular activities.

Target Cells

The cell that is the destination of a released hormones

Receptor

A sensor in the cell membrane, or in the cytoplasm that allows the cell to respond to the presence of a hormone

First Messenger

The hormone that binds to the receptor in the cell membrane

Second Messenger

The substance in the cytoplasm that responds to the activation of a receptor in the membrane

G Protein

An enzyme that is coupled to a membrane receptor

Cyclic AMP

One of the most important second messengers. Its appearance depends on the presence of Adenylate Cyclase.

Adenylate Cyclase

Converts ATP into a ring shaped molecule of cAMP

Regulatory Hormones

Special hormones that control the activity of endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary.

Releasing Hormones

Stimulate the production of one or more hormones in the anterior pituitary.

Inhibiting Hormones

Inhibit the production of one or more hormones in the anterior pituitary.

Portal System

The entire system of portal veins

Hypophyseal Portal System

The Portal system in the hypothalamus

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Targets the thyroid gland and triggers the release of thyroid hormones

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

Stimulates the release of several hormones by the adrenal cortex.

Pituitary Gland

This gland secretes nine different hormones, all hormones use cAMP as a second messenger.

Infundibulum

Slender stalk connecting the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland.

Anterior Pituitary Gland

This gland contains endocrine cells surrounded by an extensive capillary network called the hypophyseal portal system.

Gonadotropins

Hormones that regulate the activities of the male and female sex organs

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

Promotes follicle and ova development in females and stimulates secretion of estrogens.

Luteinizing Hormone

Induces ovulation and promotes secretion of estrogens and progestins.

Progestins

Hormones that prepare the body for pregnancy.

Androgens

Male sex hormones produced by the testes

Prolactin

Works with other hormones to produce breast milk by the mammary glands

Growth Hormone

Stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating the rate of protein synthesis.

Somatomedins

Hormones produced by liver cells in response to the presence of growth hormone

Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone

Stimulates the pigment cells in the skin increasing the amount of pigment produced.

Posterior Pituitary Gland

This gland contains axons from two different groups of neurons located within the hypothalamus.

Antidiuretic Hormone

Hormone released in response to such stimuli as a rise in the concentration of electrolytes in the blood. Reduces the amount of water lost in the urine.

Oxytocin

Hormone that stimulates smooth muscle contractions in the uterus, and pushes milk out of the mammary glands.

Thyroid Gland

Gland that lies anterior to the trachea, and just inferior to the thyroid cartilage.

Thyroid Cartilage

Forms most of the anterior surface of the larynx covers the thyroid.

Thyroid follicles

Spheres lined by a simple cuboidal epithelium in the thyroid gland

Thyroxine

Hormone secreted by the thyroid contains four iodine atoms, makes up 90% of thyroid secretions.

Triiodothyronine

Related more potent molecule than thyroxine containing three iodine atoms

Calorigenic Effect

When the metabolic rate raises, and more heat is produced.

C cells

Endocrine cells sandwiched between the follicle cells and their basement membrane. Produce calcitonin.

Calcitonin

Hormone that helps regulate calcium ion concentrations in body fluids.

Parathyroid Glands

Glands embedded in the posterior surfaces of the thyroid gland.

Chief Cells

Cells that produce parathyroid Hormone

Parathyroid Hormone

Hormone that stimulates osteoclasts, inhibits the bone building functions of osteoblasts.

Adrenal glands

Glands that sit on the top of the kidneys, has two sections

Adrenal Cortex

Yellowish in color due to presence of lipids, part of the adrenal gland

Corticosteroids

Steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex.

Mineralocorticoids

Hormones that affect the electrolyte composition of body fluids.

Aldosterone

Stimulates the conservation of sodium ions by targeting cells that regulate the ionic composition of excreted fluids.

Glucocorticoids

Hormones that affect glucose metabolism

Cortisol, Corticosterone, Cortisone

The three glucocorticoids in "ex, ex, ex" fashion

Adrenal Androgens

Sex hormones produced in both sexes by the adrenal cortex

Adrenal Medulla

Reddish brown part of the adrenal glands

Epinephrine

Hormone responsible for the fight or flight response

Norepinephrine

Hormone responsible for the Anti-fight or flight response

Pineal Gland

Gland lying in the posterior portion of the roof of the third ventricle.

Melatonin

Hormone that inhibits reproductive function, antioxidant activity, and day/night cycles.

Pancreas

Organ that lies in the j-shaped loop between the stomach and the proximal portion of the small intestine.

Pancreatic Islets

Clusters of the endocrine pancreas

Alpha cells

Cells in the pancreas that produce glucagon

Beta cells

Cells in the pancreas that produce insulin

Insulin

Secreted when blood glucose levels go above normal

Glucagon

Secreted when blood glucose levels go below normal

Calcitriol

Hormone secreted by the kidneys in response to PTH.

Erythroipoietin

Hormone secreted by the kidneys in response to low oxygen levels in kidney tissues.

Renin

Hormone secreted by the kidneys in response to a decrease in blood volume, pressure, or both.

Angiotensin II

Hormone released by the kidneys, stimulates production of aldosterone.

Thymus

Organ located in the mediastinum, posterior to the sternum, releases thymosins

Thymosins

Hormones released by the thymus, aid in lymphatic and immune defenses.

Interstitial Cells

Cells in the testes that produces androgens

Testosterone

Hormone produced by the testes, most important androgen

Inhibin

Hormone secreted by the testes, inhibits secretion of FSH

Follicles

Structures in the ovaries in which ova develop under stimulation by FSH.

Estrogens

Hormones produced by the cells surrounding the ova that support the maturation of the ova and the growth of the uterine wall.

Corpus Luteum

The follicular cells reorganize into a ______ after ovulation

Progesterone

Hormone that accelerates the movement of fertilized eggs along the uterine tubes.

Leptin

Hormone secreted by the adipose tissue, regulates appetite.

Resistin

Hormone secreted by adipose tissue, reduces insulin sensitivity

Antagonistic

When two hormones have opposite effects

Additive

When two hormone have the same effect and add to a greater effect

Synergistic

When two hormones have a greater effect than their sum

Integrative

When two hormones have complementary effects

Stress

Any environmental event that takes the body out of homeostasis

General Adaptation Syndrome

Process of stress response that happens in three steps

Alarm Phase, Resistance Phase, Exhaustion Phase

Three phases of G.A.S.

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