Collection of related files containing records on people, places, or things. I.E. telephone book
Generalized categories representing a person, place, or thing on which we store and maintain information
Specific characteristics that entities have.
Most common type of database today. Organize data into two-dimensional tables (called relations) with columns and rows
Represents an attribute for the entity
Another word for rows
technical term for rows
A field that uniquely identifies each record so that the record can be retrieved, updated, or sorted
The unique identifier for all the information in any row of the table, cannot be duplicated
Essentially a look-up field to look up data about the supplier of a specific part
A schematic used to clarify table relationships in a relational database. The manner in which the two tables are related to each other is the most important piece of information provided by an entity-relationship diagram.
Process of streamlining complex groups of data to minimize redundant data elements and awkward many-to-many relationships, and increase stability and flexibility.
Ensures that the relationships between coupled tables remain consistent.
Database Management System (DBMS)
Specific type of software for creating, storing, organizing, and accessing data from a database
Popular open-source DBMS
Logical View of DBMS
Presents data as end users or business specialists would perceive them.
Physical View of DBMS
Shows how data are actually organized and structured on physical storage media, such as a hard disk
Select Operation in Relational Database
Creates a subset consisting of all records in the file that meet stated criteria.
Join Operation in Relational Database
Combines relational tables to provide the user with more information that is available in individual tables
Creates a subset consisting of columns in a table, permitting the user to create new tables that contain only the information required.
A capability to specify the structure of the content of the database. It would be used to create database tables and to define the characteristics of the fields in each table.
An automated or manual file that stores definitions of data elements and their characteristics.
Data Manipulation Language
Used to add, change, delete, and retrieve the data in the database. Language contains commands that permit end users and programming specialists to extract data from the database to satisfy information requests and develop applications
Structured Query Language
Most prominent data manipulation language.
Stores the data and procedures that act on those data as objects that can be automatically retrieved and shared. Becoming popular because they can be used to manage the various multimedia components or Java applets used in Web Applications.
Now available to provide capabilities of both object-oriented and relational DBMS
Stores current and historical data of potential interest to decision systems, such as systems for sales, customer accounts, and manufacturing, and may include data from Web site transactions. Consolidates and standardizes information from different operational databases so that the information can be used across the enterprise for management analysis and decision making.
A subset of a data warehouse in which a summarized or highly focused portion of the organization's data is placed in a separate database for a specific population of users
Business Intelligence (BI)
Tools for consolidating, analyzing, and providing access to vast amounts of data to help users make better business decisions.
Tools for Business Intelligence
Include software for database querying and reporting, tools for multidimensional data analysis, and data mining tools
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)
Supports multidimensional data analysis, enabling users to view the same data in different ways using multiple dimensions. Each aspect of information--product, pricing, cost, region, or time period--represents a different dimension.
Is more discovery driven. Provides insights into corporate data that cannot be obtained with OLAP by finding hidden patterns and relationships in large databases and inferring rules from them to predict future behavior.
Occurrences linked to a single event.
Events are linked over time
Recognizes patterns that describe the group to which an item belongs by examining existing items that have been classified and by inferring a set of rules
Works in a manner similar to classification when no groups have yet been defined
Uses predictions in a different way. Uses a series of existing values to forecast what other values will be.
Uses Data mining techniques, historical data, and assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events
Resides in a client/server environments where the DBMS is
Common Gateway Interface- specification for processing data on a Web Server
Specifies the organization's rules for sharing, disseminating, acquiring, standardizing, classifying, and inventorying information.
Responsible for the specific policies and procedures through which data can be managed as an organizational resource.
Data Quality Audit
A structured survey of the accuracy and level of completeness of the data in an information system. Can be performed by surveying entire data files, surveying samples from data files, or surveying end users for their perceptions of data quality
Data Cleansing (Data scrubbing)
Consists of activities for detecting and correcting data in a database that are incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted, or redundant. Enforces consistency among different sets of data that originated in separate information systems.