Small Animal Diseases and Medical Care - Transmission and Development of Infectious Diseases

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Transmission and Development of Infectious Diseases ~VETT113 Small Animal Diseases and Medical Care San Juan College Veterinary Technician

Infectious disease

occurs when a microorganism in the body multiplies and causes damage to the tissues.

Pathogens

The microorganisms that cause infectious diseases

Endogenous

Diseases caused by microorganisms that are normally present on or in the body without causing harm, but something happens that allows them to express their disease-producing potential.

Exogenous

Disease is caused by microorganisms that are not normally present on or in the body but contaminate the body from the outside.

Toxigenic diseases

Can cause disease without entering and multiplying in the body.
Can occur after organisms have multiplied on food that has been consumed. (food poisoning)

Universal precautions

the need to treat blood and other body fluids from all patients as potentially infectious

Standard precautions

to consider blood, all body fluids, including secretions and excretions (except sweat), nonintact skin, and mucous membranes as potentially infectious in all patients.

Incubation stage

the period from the initial entrance of the infectious agent into the body to the time when the first symptoms of the disease appear.

Prodromal stage

involves the appearance of early symptoms.
Micr. just enough to cause first symptoms (malaise)

Acute stage

When symptoms of the disease are maximal and the person is obviously ill.

Convalescent stage

the recovery phase. micr. number is declining. symptoms lessen

indirect contact

can result from injuries with contaminated sharps, and contact with contaminated instruments, equipment, surfaces, and hands.

Droplet infection

this mode encompasses large-particle droplet spatter >5mm that is transmitted by close contact
prevent infection with PPE

Airbrone infection

involves small particles(aka droplet nuclei or aerosol particles) <5mm
PPE cannot prevent all infections

Infection

multiplication and survival of micr. on or in the body

Inhalation

Micr. can enter through breathing aerosol particles generated from use of phrphylaxis angle

Ingestion

Swallowing droplets of saliva/blood splatter into the mouth

Host defense mechanisms

defense against harmful infections are either innate defenses or acquired defenses

innate defenses

are always active

acquired defenses

must be stimulated to become active

Long term immunity

The body remembers and organism and can respond rapidly to destroy it before it can damage the body

artificial immunity

Through immunization or vaccination.

Host Risk Factors

certain conditions that can predispose an animal to disease: Age, gender, race, ethnic background

Communicable diseases

diseases than can be transmitted to other people; (aka) contagious diseases and community-acquired diseases

Contagious diseases

A sickness that is can be passed from one person to another as germs are spread by touch or through the air.

Biological vector

disease-carrying organism, such as a rat, mosquito, or fly, that spreads infectious disease

Localized infection

occurs when microbe enters the body and is confined to a specific area

systemic infection

microbe spreads throughout the body usually in the bloodstream

Disease

any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body

recovery phase

the period of time during which the patient begins to fight the infection and decrease the number of microbes in the body

Asymptomatic Infection

infection where signs and symptoms are not present

iatrogenic disease

disease caused unintentionally by medical therapy

idiopathic disease

Disease of unknown cause

chronic infection

infection that occurs slowly, over a very long period, and may last months or years

nonsocomial infection

is an infection acquired after admission to a health care facility

latent infection

Infection that is not currently active but could reactivate at a later time.

microbe

an organism invisible to the naked eye, especially one that causes disease

virulence

The strength or ability of a pathogen to produce disease.

etiology

study of the cause of disease

carrier

a person, animal, or plant that harbors and transmits the causative agent of an infectious disease; especially : one who carries the causative agent systemically but is asymptomatic or immune to it

host

An organism infected by another organisim

reservoir host

an organism in which a parasite that is pathogenic for some other species lives and multiplies without damaging its host; also

susceptible host

having little resistance to a specific infectious disease : capable of being infected

transmission of disease

an act, process, or instance of transmitting

vectors

organism that does not itself cause disease but serves to transmit an infectious organism from one host to another.

fomites

inanimate object (not living) that can become contaminated with a pathogen which can then be carried to a susceptible host.

direct contact

most common ways that infectious disease organisms are transmitted. A susceptible animal comes into contact with the infected animal and the microbe is transferred via contact with body fluids / secretions / skin / fur

transplacental

relating to, involving, or being passage (as of an antibody) between mother and fetus through the placenta

mucous membranes

a membrane rich in mucous glands; specifically : one that lines body passages and cavities which communicate directly or indirectly with the exterior

neoplasia / neoplasm

a new growth of tissue serving no physiological function : tumor

exposure

he fact or condition of being exposed: as a : the condition of being unprotected

differential diagnosis

the distinguishing of a disease or condition from others presenting similar symptoms

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