congress of berlin, 1884
brings together all of the european colonial powers and tries to prevent their rivalries in africa from becoming world wars.
The Fashoda Incident (1898) was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between the United Kingdom and France in Eastern Africa. It brought the United Kingdom and France to the verge of war, but ended in a diplomatic victory for the UK. It is held to have given rise to the 'Fashoda syndrome' in French foreign policy (assertion of French influence in areas which may be becoming susceptible to British influence).
why did the europeans want to conquer africa: economics
discovery of rich minerals in south africa, led people to wonder what other riches were hiding in africa. rumors of lost cities based on mineral wealth-'king solomon's mines'. Economic situation of the world changed- merchant-capital dominated the European economy fofr most of the time, but changed to industrial capital in the late 1800 and Europe needed the raw materials and the market to sell their goods
International economic competition also grew, many nations only allowed their goods to be sold in their colonies (neo-mercantilism)
Strategic considerations were important, every nation wanted to control waterways, wanted to link colonies. the economic potential of empire, as Britain and Spain had been proving for centuries, was unquestionable. Empire could insulate the mother country from dangerous booms and busts in the economic cycle by keeping markets open and exclusive. Mercantile policies could increase revenues and natural resources could shore up the treasury.
why did the europeans want to conquer africa: strategic reasons
strategically located in the mdidle of the world, every country wanted to gain economic advantage against each other. areas strategically impt for maintaing trade routes to asia or maintaining refueling station for world-wide navy. horn of africa, southern tip of continent and w.african coast=strat. locations for world control. GB hoping to link ciaro in the N with Capetown in the S, wanted N/S dominance. all the territory between these 2 points=gained strategic value. Strategic considerations were important, every nation wanted to control waterways, wanted to link colonies. Other British imperialistic actions were focused on limiting the increase of French power, responding to British public opinion, and maintaining the pride of the empire. want to expand their empires.
why did the europeans want to conquer africa: nationalism
New nations wanted to show off their power, some wanted to regain national pride, esp. smaller countries. Other British imperialistic actions were focused on limiting the increase of French power, responding to British public opinion, and maintaining the pride of the empire. want to expand their empires. To report back home and throughout Europe that one nation acquired thousands of square miles of territory and millions of captive populations enhanced the prestige of that state throughout the world and for its own people. To be a victor in the imperial game meant great national pride and, thus, the improvement of the ruling party back at home.
scientific racism. Social darwinism. The liberal tradition of Europe emphasized not equality, as we do today, but self-improvement and the perfectibility of man. This belief, combined with Charles Darwin's New Science and the warping of the statement "survival of the fittest" by social Darwinism, encouraged the view that Europe was going down into the so-called Dark Continent to raise up and civilize the savage natives. heyday of scientific racism. Move away from biblical/religious justification to scientific for racism. Idea that superirority of some races over others is a scientific fact.
• Social Darwinism: vulgurisation of his ideas. Applied to society (whereas darwinisn was applied to species of animals). Socieites must either dominate, or they will go extinct.
Historians generally agree that the Scramble for Africa, the rushed imperial conquest of the Africa by the major powers of Europe, began with King Leopold II of Belgium. After reading a report in early 1876 that the rich mineral resources of the Congo Basin (the modern-day Republic of the Congo) could return an entrepreneurial capitalist a substantial profit, the Belgian king ordered the creation of the International African Association, under his personal direction, to assume control over the Congo Basin region. When Leopold asked for international recognition of his personal property in the Congo, Europe gathered at the Berlin Conference, called to create policy on imperial claims. The conference, after much political wrangling, gave the territory to Leopold as the Congo Free State.The conference further decreed that for future imperialist claims to garner international recognition, "effective occupation" would be required.
conference of berlin
1884-85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. Called for by Portugal and organized by Otto von Bismarck, the first Chancellor of Germany, its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, is often seen as the formalization of the Scramble for Africa. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity on the part of the European powers, while simultaneously eliminating most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.The conference further decreed that for future imperialist claims to garner international recognition, "effective occupation" would be required. In other words, no longer did plunging a flag into the ground mean that land was occupied. The conference also created some definition for "effective occupation," noting that significant "economic development" was required
Founder of the Rhodes scholarship. A British baron who makes a fortune off of diamonds and gold in South Africa. Becomes a major imperialist, wants to make a railroad from South Africa to Egypt. (Cape to Cairo). Rhodes scolarship: cultivate ties with british empire universally. Wants to build a railroad from Cairo to the Cape. 'cape to Cairo'. Rhodes conflict leads to Anglo-bohr war (south African war). Help set the stage for white rule in s/africa later on.
term used to describe a policy regime which encourages exports, discourages imports, controls capital movement and centralizes currency decisions in the hands of a central government. The objective of neo-mercantilist policies is to increase the level of foreign reserves held by the government, allowing more effective monetary policy and fiscal policy. many nations only allowed their goods to be sold in their colonies
cape to cairo
uncompleted project to cross Africa from south to north by rail. This plan was initiated at the end of the 19th century, during the time of colonial rule, largely under the vision of Cecil Rhodes, in the attempt to connect adjacent African possessions of the British Empire through a continuous line from Cape Town, South Africa, to Cairo, Egypt. While most sections of the Cape to Cairo railway are in operation, a major part is missing between northern Sudan and Uganda. The concept of the Cape to Cairo Railway is not dead. While the current turmoil in Sudan is an obstacle to its completion, tangible concepts have been forwarded to complete the link between Sudan and East Africa for economic reasons
Discovered to have healing malaria effects, brings death rates down, allowing Europeans to enter it
Southern African Mineral Revolution
Many wanted to find the "lost citites" in Africa, Europeans had great expectations
Mineral revolution sets off a chain of expansion by European explorers, colonial officials. discovery of gold
congo free state
Territory of King
II of Belgium, but is an independent country, not subject to the Belgian government, but to Leopold.
Leopold brings in Belgians and other foreigners to squeeze wealth out of the territory
Anglo-Boer War, or South African War
1 October 1899 until 31 May 1902, between the British Empire and the two independent Boer republics of the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic) and the Orange Free State.origins of the war were complex, resulting from over two centuries of conflict between the Boers and the British Empire. 1886, massive deposits of gold were discovered in the South African Republic, a huge inflow of uitlanders (foreigners), mainly from Britain, came to the region in search of employment and fortune. british used concentration camps: really brutal. end of white rule=1994
first self-powered machine gun, invented by the American-born British inventor Sir Hiram Maxim in 1884.The gun played an important role in the swift European colonization of Africa in the late 19th century. The extreme lethality was employed to devastating effect against obsolete charging tactics, when native opponents could be lured into pitched battles in open terrain. As it was put by Hilaire Belloc,
Whatever happens, we have got
The Maxim gun, and they have not.
christianity, commerce and civilisation. many wanted to stamp out slavery and wanted to save africa from despotic ruelrs and poverty and also save women from oppression.
means of conquering
-machinery, maxim gun. quinine--once it was introduced technology did not favour eurepeans until late 1800s, discovery of quinine which alleviates malaria, changed africa from 'white man's grave' unto territory they could explore. high precision weapons are mass produced, maxim gun: he extreme lethality was employed to devastating effect against obsolete charging tactics, when native opponents could be lured into pitched battles in open terrain. PRIMITIVE V MODERN because of factories + steamships, europeans had virtually unlimited supply of weapons
means of conquering: racism
- Racism was not just a motivation, but also a means of conquest. Racism cultivated a sense of white racial solidarity in Europeans, so at the end of the day it was Europe against Africa.