10.6 Human Development application review questions

69 terms by lswick 

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accommodation

Piaget's term for the modification of an established schema to fit a new object or problem

acculturation

a transition from feeling part of the culture of one's original country to the culture of the country one enters

assimilation

Piaget's term for the application of an established schema to new objects or problems

attachment

a long-tern feeling of closeness between people, such as a child and a caregiver

authoritarian parents

those who exert firm controls on their children, generally without explaining the reasons for the rules and without providing much warmth.

Cohorts

The people born in the 1970s have different interests and attitudes than the people born in the 1950s ever did. This difference is due to a difference in ______.

conservation

the concept that objects retain their weight, volume, and other properties in spite of changes in their shape or arrangement

cross-sectional study

Yesterday Professor Eaton asked children of different ages (6 through 12) to list their favorite foods, and then compared the results for different ages. This is an examples of which kind of study?

dishabituation

an increase in a previously habituated response as a result of the change in the stimulus

egocentric

"If I know what I am talking about, other people will understand too." This statement is an example of _______ thought.

equilibration

the establishment of harmony or balance between assimilation and accommodation

habituation

a decrease in a person's response to a stimulus after it has repeatedly been presented.

heritability

an estimate of the variance within a population that is due to heredity.

identity achievement

the outcomes of having explored various possible identities and them making one' own decision.

identity crisis

concerns with decisions about the future and the quest for self-understanding.

identity diffusion

the condition of having not yet given any serious thought to identify decisions and having no clear sense of identity

identity foreclosure

the state of having made firm identity decision and having no clear sense of identity.

identity moratorium

the state of seriously considering one's identity without yet having made any serious decisions

longitudinal study

An investigator measures the moral reasoning of a group of 12 year olds, and four years later measures their moral reasoning again to determine how it changed. This study follows which design?

midlife transition

a time of goal reassessment

object permanence

the concept that objects continue to exist even when one does not see, hear or otherwise sense them

operation

According to Piaget a mental process that can be reversed

preoperational stage

According to Piaget, a boy in this stage of development would have trouble understanding that his mother is also someone's daughter.

schema

an organized way of interacting with the world

selective attrition

the tendency of some kinds of people to be more likely than others to drop out of a study.

sensorimotor

According to Piaget, children respond only to what they see and hear, rather than what they might remember or imagine, in the ______stage

sequential design

A researcher administers a personality test to Group A, age 14, and to Group B, age 16. Two years later, the researchers administer the same test to participants from Group A, now age 16, and to Group B, now age 18. The researcher is using what type of design?

stage of concrete operations

according to Piaget the ability to deal with the properties of concrete objects but not hypothetical or abstract questions.

stage of formal operations

according to Piaget the stage when children develop the ability to deal with abstract, hypothetical situations, which demand logical, deductive reasoning and systematic planning.

Strange Situation

a procedure in which a psychologist observes an infants behavior in an unfamiliar room at various times as the stranger enters, leaves and returns and the mother enters, leaves and returns.

temperament

people's tendency to be either active or inactive, outgoing or reserved, and to respond vigorously or quietly to new stimuli.

terror-management theory

the proposal that we cope with our fear of death by avoiding thinking about death and by affirming out world view that provides self-esteem hope, and value in life.

theory of mind

an understanding that other people have a mind too and that each person knows some things that other people don't know

zone of proximal development

the distance between what a child can do on his her her own and what the child can do with the help pf adults or older children.

Carol Gilligan

criticized Kohlberg's view of moral development saying it concentrated on one type of moral reasoning(justice) and ignored another approach (caring).

Jean Piaget

studied how children's thought processes differ from those of adults

Vygotsky

disagreed with Piaget; argued that children have a zone of proximal development that is important in education.

Harry Harlow

observed that infant monkeys without mothers or companions became attached to pieces of cloth in their cages.

imprinting

the process by which some animals form immediate attachments during a critical period.

Mary Ainsworth

1913-1999; Field: development; Contributions: compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; Studies: The Strange Situation-observation of parent/child attachment

universal principles

According to Kohlberg, the highest stage of moral reasoning is one in which people make their decisions on the basis of______.

reward and punishment

According to Kohlberg, the lowest stage of moral reasoning is one in which people make their decisions on the basis of ______.

justice

Kohlberg's type of moral reasoning has been called a _______ orientation.

caring

Gilligan's alternative to moral reasoning is a ______orientation.

self

a mother puts a red spot on the nose of her infant in front of the mirror. Based on the information given in the text, the mother is probably trying to determine if the child has acquired a sense of ______.

trust

According to Erickson, the main concern of a newborn infant is

adolescents

According to Erickson, the identity crisis is of greatest concern to people of what age?

young adult

According to Erickson, intimacy or isolation is of greatest concern to people in which age group?

generativity vs. stagnation

According to Erickson, the major conflict of middle adulthood (late 20s through retirement) is

visual cliff

a sheet of glass with a checkerboard pattern a few feet below it; it is used to study depth perception in infants.

diet

PKU is an inherited condition that can cause mental retardation. The retardation can be prevented by a special

human face

Two-day old infants typically would spend the most time looking at a

preoperational stage

A child is shown a scale model of a full size room. A tiny toy is hidden behind the miniature couch and the child is told "A big toy just like this is hidden in the same place in the bigger room." When taken to the big room, the child searches haphazardly for the big toy, rather than looking behind the couch. Which stage of Piaget's is the child in?

conservation

An experimenter shows a child two glasses of water and then pours the water from one of them into a glass of a different shape. Then the experimenter asks whether the new glass has more or less water than the other one. Which Piaget concept is this experiment demonstrating?

men

Red-green color blindness depends on a recessive gene on the X chromosome. Red-green colorblindness is therefore more common in _____

fetus

Beginning at about 8 weeks after conception, and throughout the remainder of the prenatal period a developing human is called a

mouth

Which movements are newborn infants best able to control?

finger movements

Which movement is slowest to develop in human infants?

personal fable

Tragedy will never strike me...I will succeed in all my ambitions...Everyone notices how I look. According to David Elkind, these beliefs are part of the adolescents

stares loner than usual

An infant watches a toy car go down a track, behind a curtain, and apparently through a block that should have stopped it. How does the child usually react?

frightened

Infants who were "inhibited" at age 4 months have been shown to be easily _______ when tested later

genetics and environment

What contributes to the temperament of an individual?

family size

Many studies have reported differences in personality or achievement between first-born and later born children. However, most of those studies can be faulted for confusing birth order with the effects of _____ _____.

young

The negative effects of divorce on the children tend to be milder if the children were _____when the divorce took place.

defenses in their beliefs

According to the Terror Management Theory, even a casual reference to death tends to increase people's

fear of heights

If children less than one year old get earlier than normal experience of locomotion, such as crawling, then those children will be quicker than normal to develop a

sequential

A researcher wants to conduct a study that combines the advantages of cross-sectional and longitudinal design. The best choice for the researcher would be the use of ____ design

genetic differences in digestion

Most Asians drink little or no milk and seldom eat dairy products. The primary reason is

decrease

We now know that the detrimental effects of alchol in infants is caused a ______ in the total excitation of neurons, so that they eventually will self-destruct.

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