3 properties of language
Language is rule governed, generative, conventional
"Colorless green ideas sleep furiously" is a violation of what aspect of language?
Knowledge of the rules
use of the rules of language
aspect of language dealing with sound system and how it's patterned; rules governing how sounds are put together
listing of all the phonemes in a language
smallest unit of sound that signals a difference in meaning
two phonemes that differ only in terms of one distinctive feature: manner, place, or voicing
variation of a phoneme that does not change the meaning
p, b, t, d, k, g
f, v, s, z, th
m, n, ng
vowels, m, n, ng, y, b, d, g, v, z, th, w, r
p, t, k, f, s, ch
rules that govern the way sounds go together, and describe and govern combinations
Plural marker "s" following a voiced consonant is likely to be voiced, whereas a plural marker "s" following a voiceless consonant is likely to be voiceless.
In the word "dogs" the plural marker "s" is voiced because of what rule?
When /t/ or /d/ appears before a glide /y/, it becomes palatalized. There is a phonetic alteration of place according to environment
In the phrase "lead you" there is a phonetic alteration of place concerning the consonant "d." What rule does this change correspond to?
Vowel takes on a nasal quality because of the nasal that follows it. There is a phonetic change in manner due to environment.
In the word "And," what happens to the vowel in terms of manner?
rules governing meaning at the intraword level
can stand alone and still have meaning; also called lexical morphemes
Has to attach to another morpheme; there are two types of bound morphemes, inflectional and derivational
Grammatical markers (only suffixes): including the passed tense (ed), the plural (s), the possessive (s), the third person singular (s), the present progressive (ing), the auxillary (to be), and the copula (to be)
Wanted, baking, father's, apples, we're, types --> these are all examples of what?
Changes the class of the word from one part of speech to another; includes prefixes and suffixes: pre-, un-, de-, in-, -ly, -tion, -ment, -ness
prenuptial, decode, finally, punishment, happiness, slowly --> these are all examples of?
Rules for ordering words in a sentence; in English, SVO is the usual order
modifications of the Simple, Active, Affirmative, Declarative sentence (SAAD). In a ______________, the sentence is changed so that one of those four SAAD characteristics are modified.
Simple, Active, Affirmative Declarative
Changing the sentence from "The dog licked the boy" to "The boy was licked by the dog"
"The boy was not licked by the dog."
"Did the dog lick the boy?"
system of rules governing words and sentence meaning. For example, "Colorless green ideas sleep furiously" is a violation of this rule.
Meaning of a word at word level; words are used to refer to something; words reference or concept; semantic features of a word
Semantic features: four legged, animate, barks, furry
meaning of words in a sentence in relation to each other; who did what to whom and when; idea of semantic relation --> actor/ action/ object
meaning that a speaker intended that wasn't expressed literally; figurative language; idioms, metaphors, proverbs and cultural expressions
"Break a leg" is an example of what semantic concept?
Rules governing the use of language; divided into Intent and Discourse
Purpose of speaking; Two types: Speech Act and Agenda
Intent/purpose of an utterance
a group of words separated from other utterances by pauses
Types of Speech Acts
Statement of fact, request for info, request for action, command, compliment, bargaining, comment, threat, tease, insult, predict
Direct vs. Indirect Speech Acts
"Open the door" vs. "Could you please open the door?" is an example of ___________.
"Leave me alone" is an example of what kind of speech act?
Request for action
"Show me your watch" is an example of what kind of speech act?
"That's a ball" is an example of what kind of speech act?
"I love your coat" is an example of what kind of speech act?
When a speech act is stated in an utterance, as in "I apoligize for hurting your feelings"
Intent of a number of utterances; there is always a purpose behind a string of dialog.
Stated agenda vs. Hidden Agenda
When someone says "I'd like to talk to you about grad school" and what they really want is a recommendation, what part of pragmatics are they demonstrating?
Part of pragmatics; three types: Narrative, Expository, Conversational
An extended discourse, one person talking, a monologue or story; children begin telling stories at age 2; no feedback from the audience
Informational, like a teacher giving a lecture, requires a lot of planning ahead of time
Conversation is governed by a set of rules, known as Grice's Maxims. We can/do violate these maxims intentionally, like avoiding the subject to avoid relevance, so as not to cause someone pain: "Is she pretty?" "Oh, she's really nice!"
a. Must be relevant (meaningful, on the subject)
b. Must be truthful/sincere
c. Must be orderly
d. Must avoid ambiguity and be clear
e. Must be brief
f. Must be polite
A turn is defined as all of the speaker's utterances up until the other person talks or takes over. Interrupting or simultaneous talking is a violation of turn-taking rule.
When someone is about to stop talking, see a rising or falling intonation, pause, tapering off
When someone wants to keep talking, they use fillers, talk loudly, speed up the rate of speech to hold the floor
phonology, morphology, sytax
states that all aspects of language - form, content, use- are equal in status
theory that puts emphasis on the aspect of language dealing with use - pragmatics. This view was very popular in the 1980s, many still believe this
Importance of Phonology
1990s - focus is moving to a phonology-based idealogy; phonology drives the rest of the system; we hold information in our working memory on the basis of individual phonemes, so we need a well-developed phonological system to hold info in STM and LTM.
Bases of Language Acquisition
Things a child must have in order for language to develop: biological, cognitive, social
Language has a genetic basis: all children learn language, it's almost as though you can't stop them from learning language; importance of hemispheric specialization;
Non-segmental stimuli, big picture, controls left ear, USE: pragmatics, CONTENT: semantics, music as a non-musician
Segmental stimuli, controls right ear, FORM: syntax/ morphology/ phonology, CONTENT: semantics, music as a musician
What hemisphere is semantics controlled by?
Importance of hemispheric specialization
Hemispheric specialization tells us that language is biologically driven
can't find the right word; words and meanings are stored in different parts of the brain
When a child who has suffered a stroke loses language, is that loss biologically, socially, or cognitively driven?
Which came first, thought or language? This question has to do with what base of language?
Chomsky was associated with what cognitive theory?
Cognition and language are on two seperate tracks; they will develop independently of each other; don't need cognitive acquisitions before language develops
Cognitive Determinism Theory
Piaget and his theory of Object Permanence are associated with what cognitive theory?
Cognitive Determinism Theory
Cognition determines and precedes language; idea that object permanence needs to develop before child can develop language; debunked through research --turns out that OP and first word occur at the same time (around 1 year of age)
: when an object is out of sight, knowing that it still exists. A child needs object permanence before language can develop. OP has been linked to comprehension, because to comprehend means to know that a word and concept are linked.
Linguistic Determinism Theory
Whorf, based on his study of the Innuit language, is associated with what cognitive theory?
Linguistic Determinism Theory
i. Language determines cognition and thought
ii. The language and the number of words that is available to someone influences how they think. A higher language level means a higher level of thought/cognition.
iii. Whorf: studied the Innuits- they have a large lexicon for the word "snow," therefore they perceive the phenomenon differently
iv. Need a certain language level to develop abstract thinking.
v. Research in this area does not hold up in children under 2.
Vigotsky is associated with what cognitive theory?
i. Cognition and Language are on separate tracks until age 2, at which point the tracks merge and are mutually influencing each other.
ii. Prior to age 2, more involved with images and sounds; early words probably don't represent the child's thinking. Those words are labeling an experience, not a concept.
iii. After age 2, language is used as a tool for thinking and reasoning through problems. Cognition is used to acquire new language.
iv. Semantics is the area of language that ties into cognition—when meanings begin to be applied to words, that's when the merging of tracks occurs.
v. Most supported of four theories.
Model of information gathering
attention --> discrimination --> categorization --> storage
What's needed for cognitive processing?
1. Sensory system
2. Attentional mechanisms, effected by:
a. Energy (loudness, brightness)
b. Change (fluctuation)
c. Relevance (how relevant stimuli is to an individual)
4. Experience with the world
an isolated baby, with no social contact, will not develop language; level of social contact is mitigated by adult language input and the child's drive to be social.
Paralinguistic characteristics of motherese
a. Slower rate
c. Sing-song quality- exaggerated intonation
d. Stress on content-loaded words
Linguistic characteristics of motherese
a. Reducing phonological complexity ("ba ba" for "bottle")
b. Shorter utterances
c. Articulatory simplifications
d. Simple vocab
f. Child-sensitive language (communication is child-centered)
g. Diminutives (doggie, juicie, blankie)
Reasons for motherese
1. Modeling in environment
2. Responding/reinforced by child's response
3. Mothers being to use motherese when infants begin to comprehend (7-9 months)
4. Desire to communicate with one's child
5. Desire to be understood → facilitating communication
6. Child's behavior provides cue
True or False? Mothers who focus on the Here and Now tend to have children with more advanced lexicons
True or false? Children of working class parents will hear more words than children of middle class families, and therefore have higher vocabularies.
True or false? Lower class mothers tend to use more directives with their children
Fathers overall use more _______ language with their children
Proximal zone for input
average adult is always 2 morphemes ahead of child at all times; this is done intuitively
Child's drive to be social
Children need an internal drive in order to be social; if that drive is missing, the child will have problems learning language.
Gaze and vocal behavior
1. Baby learns she can control the mother by regulating gaze
2. Mom won't look away from gaze or vocalization
3. Socialization begins there
4. Without drive to be social, like in ASD, child isn't interested in controlling gaze. The child will avert his gaze and arch his back to avoid contact with the mother.
Play with peers
1. At 10 months, babies will socially respond to each other. Babies love other babies.
2. At 12 months, begin to initiate exchanges and engage
Social play routines with caregiver
1. Peekaboo, "twist and shout"
2. Ritualistic games, caregiver initially does all actions, see a script with the activity
3. Baby loves it and want it all the time!
Newborn (birth - 1 month)
i. Crying, heard most often before feeding and before bed
ii. Crying for pain, anger, hunger
iii. Coordination of respiration and phonation
iv. Exercising vocal folds
v. Average American baby: 117 mins. spent crying per day during the first 8 days of life
1st stage of babbling, birth to 1 month
2nd stage of babbling, 2-3 months
3rd stage of babbling, 4-6 months
4th stage of babbling, 7-9 months
5th stage of babbling, 10 months to 1 year
i. Sound making is mostly vowels
ii. Sounds are produced when child is happy
iii. Back/velar sounds /ng/ /g/ /k/
iv. Gurgling/gutteral sounds
ii. vowels and back sounds
iii. raspberry sounds → vocal trill
iv. sqealing and growling
v. happy noises
vi. gaining more control over vocal tract
i. CV patterns "ba ba ba ba"
iii. Stops, nasals, glides (easy sounds)
iv. More labials, sounds in the front of the mouth → /b/ /m/ /p/
i. Non-reduplicated strings of babbling
ii. Being to add intonations
iv. Love to do it on a pretend phone
*12 months i. Producing something that sounds like a word
ii. Vocables are sometimes counted as words, as they're consistent
iii. Debate over whether this is a real stage of babbling
Babbling is a necessary precursor to first word development
no relationship between babbling and single word production
i. Pettito, psychologist, wanted to know: is babbling processing in the Left hemisphere? If so, it would be a linguistic process
ii. videotaped babies 5-12 months old babbling, and zoomed in on their mouths
iii. When babbling, their mouth skewed to the right side. This meant that the left hemisphere is involved in babbling, and that babbling is a segmental function.
iv. When smiling, the mouths skewed to the left side, so smiling involves the right hemisphere.
participants were able to identify which language a baby was babbling in. Babbling is consistent with the intonation of a particular language. This contributes to the continuity theory.