the age of montesquieu
1st stage of the revolution, the bourgeoisie phase
the age of rousseau
2nd radical phase
the age of voltaire
3rd phase, enlightened despotism encouraged
third estate during the first phase
all people not clergy or nobles, but some clergy and nobles joined the group
taxes the third estate had to pay
taille- land tax, gabelle- salt tax, tithes (10% of income)
american revolution effect
drained the french economy, proved that revolution could happen, brought more revolutionary ideals
June 17th 1789
National Assembly formed
legislative group during age of montesquieu. they got rid of noble and clerical privilege, including tithes and dues. all were = under law.
july 14 1789
the storming of the bastille, when a mob stole weapons from the armory, killing guards. when Louis didn't defend it, it showed how little power he had.
the great fear
the revolution spreads to the countryside
August 27, 1789
declaration of the rights of man and the citizen
no distinction by class or titles. this occurred during the revolution.
march of the women
thousands of starving women and peasants march of Versailles. forced Louis to Paris.
created by the middle class to control the great fair
civil constitution of the clergy
national assembly confiscates church lands and sells them. abolish monasteries. church was secularized, just a state department. sets "good catholics" against "good revolutionaries." begins the age of rousseau
flight of the king
nobles leave france. Louis and family try to escape france. caught and arrested. people distrust him.
reaction by other countries
they thought the revolution could undermine their monarchies and spread to their countries.
declaration of Pillintz
August 27 1791. united austria and prussia. it said that they would step in if royal family threatened. french people wanted war against austria.
1791. National Assembly resigns to prove they aren't power hungry. They get re-elected and are called the Legislative Assembly.
1791. king got "suspensive veto" meaning he could veto a law for 4 years, and his ministers were responsible for their own actions. there would be a permanent, elected, single chamber assembly with the power to tax.
paid taxes for 3 days of labor per year. different from passive citizens, who didn't.
War with Austria
1792. France declares war on Austria. called war of first coalition. Britain, Holland, Spain, France VS Prussia, Austria. draft called levee en mass.
parisian mob stormes tuileries 1792. Louis has to seek refuge with legislative assembly. he and Marie imprisoned. because no constitutional monarchy, they needed a more radical assembly.
really radical legislative body. Girondian rule: 1792-1793. Jacobin rule: 1793-1794.
more radical. Robespierre. took over girondist control on june 2 1793.
group created by the jacobin debating club of paris. controlled national convention at the beginning.
"without breeches." laboring poor and petty traders.
Committee of Public Safety
had the power to deal with the national emergency.
1758-1794. super radical. super rousseau. he thought if a person went against the general will, he or she was an enemy of the state.
legislation passed by national convention
law of general maxim: prices strictly enforced, seal wages, food secured by army=DEBT! law of suspect: people not enthusiastically supporting revolution= enemies of state and should die.
a fast and humane execution device. it was considered more democratic because it had a nice sharp blade for everyone.
1793. revolt against revolution. noble revolt and some rural peasant support.
de-christianization of france. public religion banned. church linked with counter-revolution. people thought religion had no place in rational republic. changed calendar.
"cultural revolution" by national convention
created metric system. abolished slavery. legalized divorce. enacted shared inheritance laws.
death of marat
PROPAGANDA. marat portrayed as patriotic saint. similar qualities to jesus images.
propagandist who wanted virtue, valued lower classes, part of national convention. called "tyrant of arts" and eventually got banished.
radical hotbeds shut down. churches opened. 1795 new constitution of a conservative republic.
people attacked leaders of the Terror. "white terror"
political instability during directory and thermidorian reaction
inflation, bread riots.