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Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

Treaty of Versailles

the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans

William Marcy Tweed

N.Y. political boss (did not hold a political office) controlled the Democratic political machine known as Tammany Hall; Stole $200 million form New York City

WEB DuBois

1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP in 1910

Booker T. Washington

African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.

Jacob Riis

Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC and Hell's Kitchen

Progressive Era

Period of reform from 1890s-1920s. Opposed waste and corruption while focusing on the general rights of the individual. Pushed for social justice, general equality, and public safety. Significants in this movement included trust-busting, Sherman Anti-trust Act, President Theodore Roosevelt, Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle", Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act of 1906.`

Pullman Strike

1894 railway workers strike for higher wages against the Pullman Company, in which President Grover Cleveland issued an injunction (a court order to stop something) to prevent the strike.

Fourteen Points

the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations

Social Darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.

World War I

also known as the Great War, conflict, chiefly in Europe, among most of the great Western powers. It was the largest war the world had yet seen.

Federal Trade Commission

A government agency established in 1914 to prevent unfair business practices and help maintain a competitive economy.

Creel Committee

Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty.

Open Door Policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

Theodore Roosevelt

26th President of the United States, 26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War

Know Nothings

political party made up of nativists who answered questions about the society by answering "I know nothing." Supported only white, native born, protestant candidates. Anti-immigrant party.

Spanish American War

In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence

The Jungle

This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.

Alfred Thayer Mahan

author of "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History." Helped prompt naval buildup before the first World War.

Teller Amendment

Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war

Platt Amendment

Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble

Coxey's Army

unemployed workers marched from Ohio to Washington DC to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief

Woodrow Wilson

28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize

Freedmen's Bureau

Organization run by the army to "care for" and protect southern Blacks after the Civil War

Plessy v. Ferguson

an 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were "equal"


carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. The flapper symbolized the new "liberated" woman of the 1920s. Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior of flappers as a sign of changing morals. Though hardly typical of American women, the flapper image reinforced the idea that women now had more freedom

Great Depression

a severe, world wide economic crisis which lasted from the end of 1929 to the outbreak of World War II

Republican Party

Political party that believed in the non-expansion of slavery and comprised of Whigs, Northern Democrats, and Free-Soilers.

"Cross of Gold" speech

An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold

18th Amendment

Ban on sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages. Repealed by 21st amendment

Red Scare

Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses.

Sacco and Vanzetti

two Italian men that were accused of robbing a bank and murder; Anarchists; heighted American fear of foreigners; executed with hardly any proof because of their nationality and political beliefs

Bonus Army

20,000 veterans who self-proclaimed themselves as members of the Bonus Expeditionary Force and camped around the city of Washington protesting against Congressional denial of their $1000 bonus.


formed by farmers, wanted a reduced tariff, a graduated income tax, government control of the railroads, extension of the money supply (free silver), included Blacks and women.

Margaret Sanger

she organized a birth-control movement which openly championed the use of contraceptives in the 1920's

Herbert Hoover

Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community

Warren G. Harding

Elected in 1920. laissez-faire, little regard for gov't or presidency. "Return to Normalcy" after Wilson + his progressive ideals. Office became corrupt: allowed drinking in prohibition, had an affair, surrounded himself w/ cronies (used office for private gain). Died after 3 years in office, VP: Coolidge took over

Teapot Dome Scandal

Secretary of the Interior (Albert Fall) leased government land in California and at Teapot Dome, Wyoming to 2 oil executives- Fall became the first Cabinet official to be sent to prison

Calvin Coolidge

became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.


National American Woman Suffrage Association formed in 1910 carries cause of women's suffrage to victory, granted suffrage in the 19th amendment

Atlanta Compromise

Major speech on race-relations given by Booker T. Washington addressing black labor opportunities, and the peril of whites ignoring black injustice

Niagra Movement

Led by W.E.B. Du Bois, that focused on equal rights and education of African American youth. Rejecting the gradualist approach of Booker T. Washington, members kept alive a program of militant action and claimed for African Americans all the rights afforded to other Americans. It spawned later civil rights movements.

Dr. Francis Townsend

a doctor from California who wanted the government to do more for the elderly. He wanted each person over 60 to be provided with a pension of $200 a month. This would encourage the elderly to retire, provide more job openings for the unemployed and provide a needed income for the elderly. Proponent of Social Security, and critic of FDR.

Scopes Trial

1925 court case argued by Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan in which the issue of teaching evolution in public schools was debated

Sinclair Lewis

American novelist who attacked American society with irony- First American to win a Nobel Prize for Literature

F. Scott Fitzgerald

a novelist and chronicler of the jazz age. his wife, Zelda and he were the "couple" of the decade but hit bottom during the Depression. his noval THE GREAT GATSBY is considered a masterpiece about the pursuit of an unattainable rich girl

Harlem Renaissance

a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American


a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones

Tennessee Valley Authority

A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil

A Century of Dishonor

written by Helen Hunt Jackson in 1881 to expose the atrocities the United States committed against Native Americans in the 19th century

Henry Ford

1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.

100 Days

the first 3 months of FDR's presidency where he passed many new programs to help the depression

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions

Birth of a Nation

(915) Controversial but highly influential and innovative silent film directed by D.W. Griffith. It demonstrated the power of film propaganda and revived the KKK.

"bread and butter"

type of basic unionism, meant better wages and better conditions

Knights of Labor

Labor union founded by Uriah S. Stephens in 1869, that grew out of the collapse of the National Labor Union and was replaced by AF of L after a number of botched strikes

American Federation of Labor

Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor

19th Amendment

Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Democratic candidate who won the 1932 election by a landslide. He refused to uphold any of Hoover's policies with the intent on enacting his own. He pledged a present a "New Deal" (its specific meaning ambiguous at the time to the American people) to the American public.

Joseph Pulitzer

creator of the "New York World;"cut the prices so people could afford it; featured color comics and yellow journalism

William Randolph Hearst

United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism. Owner of the New York Morning Journal.

Black Codes

Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves

Charles Lindberg

the prospects for commercial flight seemed dim until the 1920's, when this man's famous solo flight from New York to Paris electrified the nation and the world.

Palmer Raids

A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities


journalists who wrote about the corrupt side of business and public life in mass circulation magazines during the early 20th century

Insular Cases

These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos


Tall steel framed buildings that began in America. Chicago's ten story Home Insurance Building, built in 1885, was the first skyscraper. Most associated with the architecture of Louis Sullivan.

Andrew Johnson

A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.

John Roebling

German born engineer who designed the world's first suspension bridge in Cincinnati and went on to design the Brooklyn Bridge in New York City.

Louis Sullivan

United States architect known for his steel framed skyscrapers and for coining the phrase 'form follows function.'

Edward Bellamy

author of the novel Looking Backward which propose nationalizing trusts to eliminate social problems

Ku Klux Klan

founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American

Grapes of Wrath

John Steinbeck's novel about a struggling farm family during the Great Depression. Gave a face to the violence and exploitation that migrant farm workers faced in America

John Dos Passos

a novelist who wrote of WWI and its impacts on art and civilization. He was a conservative, pessimistic and had disillusion to post-war urban America. His "U.S.A" was an attack on America during the Great Depression.

Theodore Dreiser

wrote the novel, "Sister Carrie," who broke female ideals, showed social changes of the time - city life, scramble for money and power, understood place of greed in Gilded Age.

Eugene V. Debs

Kingpin Socialist, part of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), convicted under the Sedition Act in 1918 and sentenced to ten years in federal penetentiary.

Great White Fleet

Name for the steam-powered ships of the enlarged and modernized American Navy of the early 1900s, Navy force that circumnavigated the globe to show off US naval prowess

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