GRE Psychology Test: Language (FOR GAME PLAYING)

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50 terms · GRE Psych prep, psychology, psycholinguistics, Language

language

the meaningful arrangement of sounds

psycholinguistics

the study of the psychology of language

phonemes

sounds that make up words but have no meaning

morphemes

words or parts of words that have meaning; the smallest unit of meaning in language

phrase

a group of words that function when put together as a single syntactic part of a sentence

syntax

the arrangement of words into sentences as prescribed by a particular language

grammar

the overall rules of the interrelationship between morphemes and syntax

morphology or morphological rules

grammar rules; how to group morphemes

prosody

tone inflections, accents, and other accepts of pronunciation that carry meaning

Chomsky

most important figure in psycholinguistics

Chomsky

developed theory of TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR

Chomsky

developed theory of LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE

deep structure

the underlying meaning of words

surface structure

the way words are organized

transformational grammar

differentiates between surface structure (organization of words) and deep structure (underlying meaning of words)

Language Acquisition Device

Chomsky's idea of innate language acquisition positing that children have inborn ability to adopt generative grammar rules of the language they hear, they only need be exposed to language in order to apply this

overregulation

overapplication of grammar rules; "I founded the toy," "I love eating toasts"

overextension

generalizing with names of things done through characteristics and not logic; a child calling all furry things "doggie"

telegraphic speech

speech without articles or extras, similar to how it may appear in a telegram; "me go"

holophrastic speech

when a child uses one word to convey a whole sentence; "me!" meaning "give that to me"

girls

_________ are faster and more accurate with language learning (girls or boys)

bilingual children

_________ are slower at language learning

reading and writing

_________ and _________ are processed in the same regions of the brain as producing and understanding speech

alexia

the inability to read

agraphia

the inability to write

True

True or False? People who have alexia may have no problems speaking or understanding speech.

Nouns

children usually use _______ first.

one noun and one verb

Children usually speak this pattern as their first phrases: _________________

one year

time when a child first speaks word(s)

two years

time when a child speaks >50 words, usually in two-three word phrases

three years

time when a child speaks ~1,000 word vocabulary, but has many grammatical errors in use

four years

time when a child's grammar problems when using language are random exceptions

Whorf

studied Hopi language

Whorf

posited the Whorfian hypothesis

Whorf

posited that how a culture says things influences a culture's perspective

whorfian hypothesis

idea that how a culture says things and uses language influences a culture's perspective

nonsexist language

the whorfian hypothesis is often used to support the argument for _________________

Hopi

Benjamin Whorf studied this language: __________

Roger Brown

research found that children's use of grammar proceeds through the formation of hypothesis about syntax and then self-correction with experience

Katherine Nelson

found that language begins to develop with onset of ACTIVE SPEECH, rather than during first year of only listening

Nelson

this psycholinguistic discovered that baby's language development doesn't occur during their first year of life, when they are only listening

Labov

studied "Black" English (Ebonics)

Labov

found that Ebonics has a complex internal structure and isn't just incorrect English

Vygotsky and Luria

Russia's best known psycholinguistics

Vygotsky and Luria

found that word meanings are altered by interpersonal experience

Vygotsky and Luria

asserted that language is a tool involved in (and not merely a byproduct of) the development of ABSTRACT THINKING

Osgood

created SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL CHARTS

Osgood

research found that subcultures form different connotations (implied meanings) of words

Connotation

Osgood's SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL CHARTS research showed the existence of _______________ for subcultures

connotation

implied meaning of a word, shared by subcultures, as shown through Osgood's Semantic Differential Chart research

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