Chapter Ten Vocabulary, Part One

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Leitner Chapter Ten Vocabulary, Part One

Genetics

Study of heredity

Trait

Variation of a particular inherited character

Cross-fertilization

Process by which sperm from one flower's pollen fertilizes the eggs in a flower of a different plant

Hybrid

Offspring of two different true-breeding varieties

Monohybrid Cross

Mating of two organisms that differ in only one character

Allele

Alternative form of a gene

Homozygous

Having identical alleles for a gene

Heterozygous

Having different alleles for a gene

Dominant

Descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that appears to be the only one affecting a trait

Recessive

Descriptive of an allele in a heterozygous individual that does not appear to affect a trait

Punnett square

Diagram showing the probabilities of the possible outcomes of a genetic cross

Phenotype

Observable traits of an organism

Genotype

Genetic makeup of an organism; an organism's combination of alleles

Testcross

Mating of an individual of unknown genotype but dominant phenotype with a homozygous recessive individual

Dihybrid Cross

Mating of two organisms that differ in two characters

Self-fertilization

A condition that occurs in hermaphroditic organisms where the two gametes fused in fertilization come from the same individual

Purebred

Bred from members of a recognized breed, strain, or kind without admixture of other blood over many generations

Gamete

Egg or sperm sex cell that contains a single set of chromosomes, one from each homologous pair

Gene

Unit of inherited information in DNA

Somatic Cells

Any cell that partakes in forming the body of an organism, with the exception of the sperm and egg cells.

Diploid

Having two homologous sets of chromosomes

Haploid

Having a single set of chromosomes

Homologous Chromosome

One of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent

Probability

A strong likelihood or chance of something

Rule of Multiplication

A statistical rule stating that the probability of two independent events occuring together is the product of their individual probabilities

Rule of Addition

A statistical rule stating that the probability of either of two indpendent (and mutually exclusive) events ocuring is the sum of their individual probabilities minus the probability of them both occuring together

Pedigree

Family tree that records and traces the occurrence of a trait in a family

Parental Generation

True-breeding parents with which experiment started

First Filial Generation

The first generation of offspring resulting from a cross of two parent organisms, abbreviated the F1 generation

Second Filial Generation

The offspring that grow from the seeds resulting from a cross of First Filial Generation parent organisms, abbreviated the F2 generation

Carrier

Individual who has one copy of the allele for a recessive disorder and does not exhibit symptoms

Principle of Segregation

The two alleles for a character segregate during the formation of gametes. The union of gametes during fertilization reforms allele pairs in the offspring

Principle of Dominance

When only one of the two different alleles in a heterozygous individual appears to affect the trait, that allele is called the dominant allele. And in such cases, the other allele that does not appear to affect the trait is called the recessive allele. In this book, a capital letter is used to represent the name of a dominant allele (in the flower color example, P). The lowercase version of the same letter is used to represent the recessive allele (p)

Principle of Independent Assortment

This principle states that during gamete formation in an F2 cross, a particular allele for one character can be paired with either allele of another character. For instance, in the above example, R can end up with either Y or y, and r can end up with either Y or y. The alleles for different genes are sorted into the gametes independently of one another

Mendel's Laws

• Unit character-traits controlled by factors (genes) which occur in pairs
• Principe of Dominance
• Principe of Segregation
• Principle Independent Assortment

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