sociology

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Sociology

the study of human society

Social Imagination

Situates life with broader social forces(Connecting ones personal experiences with society)

Social institution

Social positions connected to social relations to perform a social role

social identity

the way that an individual identifies themselves in a group

Comte

beleived in "social physics" that discovering logic or of set of laws to explain how society works

Karl Max

beleived in "historical materialism" conflicts between classes drive social change

weber

To understand why people act the way that they do we must attach the meanings people attach to their actions

interpretive sociology

the study of social meaning

Durkheim

examines how social cohesion is mantained or not maintanined, divisions of labor influences how we relate to eachother.

Functionalism

the idea that society functions like a body, has muliple parts that serve specific roles for societys survival

conflict

conflict between competing interests in the basic force of social change and society

symbol interactionism

shared meaning, orientation, and assumptions motivate actions

postmodernism

shared meaning have eroded an, replaced multiple and often conflicitin identities

social construction

an institutionalized entity or artifact that is invented by participants in a particular culture that exsists because people belive that is exsists.

nomethic approch

not concerned with uniquness phenomena rather concerned with commonalities that can be abstracted acrosscases

microsociology

seeks to understand locall interactional contexts, ethnographic usually contaning obervation and in depth interview

macrosociology

social dynamics at a higher level of analysis

research methods

standard rules that scientists use to establish relationship between social elements.

quantatative method

seeks information in numerical form

qualatative method

seeking information but cant put in numerical form. observing, writting down summerizing.

deductive approach

starts off with a theory, makes imperical observations, then cofirms the original theory.

Inductive reasoning

Starts with emperical observations then forms a theory.

correlation

change between two things sumultaneously.

casuality

change in one factor results in a change in another factor.

requirements for causuality

correlation, time order, rule out spuriousness

independant variable

a measured factor that the researcher beleives has impact on the dependant variable

dependant

the outcome or what changed that the researcher was expecting

hypothesis

educated guess

operationalization

researcher specializes the methods and terms that will be used in the study

participant study

method that seeks to observe social actions in practice.

survey

an ordered seies of questions inteded to elicit information from respondants

historical methods

data that collects information from newspapers, reports, newspaper articles, journals, and diaries.. etc

comparitive research

comparing two or more entities such as countries

audit study

people are observed in a specific situation to see if they fare differently.

content analysis

systematic analysis of content rather than structure of communication such as written work, speech or film.

spurious

false or misleading

Validity

the extent to which an instrument mesure what it is inteded to measure

reliability

consistant results using the same measure

reflexibility

analyzing our own role in and affect on our research

generalizability

the extent to which we can claim that our findings inform us about a group larger than the one we studied

white coat effect

people will alter their behavior wen they know their being observed.

zimbaros research

one social role in the prison influences wether people would be aggressive or passive.

functions of education

teaching basic skills such ass reading and writing and well as specific skills needed for the workplace.

illiteracy

insufficient skills to read and write

innumeracy

insufficient math skills

human capitol

knowledge and skills that makes a person more pruductive.

social capitol

any relationship between people that can facilitate the actions of others.

cultural capitol

culural and social recources that people use to their advantage in variouse situations.

hidden curiculum

the nonacademic socialization and training that takes place in the schooling system.

conflict with education

growth of education fueled by competition for a few good jobs, and encouraged by employers who gain well-trained (over trained employees willing to work for less money.

credentials

an over emphasis on credentials (college degrees) for signaling social status or qualifications.

tracking

a way of dividng students into different classes by ability or future plans.

pygmalion effecct

process that occurs when behavior is modified to meet preexisting expectations.

ses

an individuals position in stratified social order

stereotype threat

when minority students feel such pessure to break the stereotypes that confront them that they perform worse due to stress and anxiety

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