Anatomy and Physiology of Digestive System

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should help you pass, it has some stuff that MIGHT be used. - Created by Nas Ibrahim (Galvan's anatomy student)

List the functions of the digestive system

breakdown of ingested food, absorption of nutrients into the blood

Alimentary canal consists of:

mouth, phaynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, anus

List the accesory organs of the digestive system:

pancreas, teeth, liver, salivary glands, gallbladder

Starting from the deepest layer and moving towards the most superficial, the layers of the wall of the GI tract are:

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa

The serosa is actually:

visceral peritoneum

gastrointestinal tract is also called

alimentary canal

The crown of the tooth is covered with:

enamel

swallowing moves a mass of food called

Bolus

controls the opening in the stomach to the small intestine?

Pyloric sphincter

order of small intestine divisions starting proximal to the stomach

Duodeum, Jejunum, ileum

Carbohydrate absorption begins in the mouth via the enzume amylase

False

Rugae

internal folds in the stomach

Stomach

food enters at the cardioesophageal sphincter,
acts as a storage tank for food,
delivers chime (processed food) to the small intestine

Salivary glands

Saliva-producing glands
Parotid glands- anterior to the ears
submandibular glands
sublingual glands

Teeth

the role is to masticate food, humans have 2 sets of teeth, decidous and adult with 32 teeth ( ages 6-12 years), incisors, canines, premolars, molars

Peristalsis

alternating waves of contraction

Segmentation

moving materials back and forth to aid in mixing

Mechanical Digestion

mixing of food in the mouth by the tongue, churning food in the stomach, segmentation in the small intestine

Chemical Digestion

enzymes break down food materials into their building blocks carbohydrates broken into simple sugars
protein broken into amino acids
fats broken into fatty acids

Defecation

elimination of digestible substances as feces,

Metabolism

sum of all chemical reactions in the body

the tissue layers of the GI tract are constant, with no variation in the different organs.

false

the folds in the lining of the stomach are called rugae.

true

the cardiac sphincter controls the opening of the esophagus into the stomach.

true

small intestine aborption

plicae, villi, microvilli

the terminal inch of the rectum is called the

anal canal

the lesser omentum attaches the :

the Liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach

the liver consists of two lobes separated by the falciform ligament.

true

where is bile stored

gallbladder

refers to the liver

hepatic

The volume of saliva secreted per day is:

1liter

Another name for the third molar is:

wisdom tooth

after food has been chewed, it is formed into a small founded mass called a:

bolus

the largest gland in the body is the :

liver

the function of the appendix is uncertain

true

the esophagus is voluntary in the upper third, mixed in the middle, and involuntary in the lower third.

true

the mesentery is fan-shaped projection of the parietal peritoneum

true

which of the following describes the pharyngeal stage of deglutition?

oropharynx to esophagus

Which step of deglutition is under voluntary control?

oral

The final produce of carbohydrate digestion is a:

monosaccharide

Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of proteins are:

proteases

The process of fat emulsficication consists of:

breaking down fats into small droplets

peristalsis can be described as a mixing movement.

false

the volumes of stomach and duodenum are approximately equal.

false

olfactory and visual stimuli are factors concerning the control of digestive gland secretion

true

chyme is liquefied food found in the stomach.

true

fats are absorbed primarily into which of the following structures?

lymph in intestinal lacteals

movement of lower colon and rectum contents at a rate slower than normal can cause:

constipation

which blood vessel carries absorbed nutrients from the GI tact to the liver?

portal vein

the majority of substance are absorbed in the small intestine

true

process of taking food into the GI tract

ingestion

food leaving the stomach

chyme

mixing movement

segmentation

expelling feces

defecation

fat droplet surrounded by bile salts

micelles

during the process of digestion, stored bile is poured into the duodenum by which of the flowing?

gallbladder

protein digestion begins in the:

stomach.

the enzyme pepsin is concerned primarily with the difgestion of which of the following?

proteins

the enzyme amylase converts which of the following?

starches to sugars

which one is not part of the small intestine?

colon

The union of the cystic duct and hepatic duct from the :

common bile duct.

the process of swallowing is known as:

degultition

Peristalsis begins in the:

esophagus

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