Historical Perspectives

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The initial shift from village to city inhibition took place in Mesopotamia, known to the Greeks as the "The Land Between Rivers" and to modern historians as...

Sumer

The Egyptian concept of ma'at...

includes ideas of harmony, order, justice and truth

The civilization that emerged in ancient Egypt arose...

at the same time as that of ancient Sumer

To the peoples of the ancient world, the characteristic manifestations of civilization - government, literature, science and art - were necessarily products of...

city life

Although the Akkadians were the predominant people of central Mesopotamia, they adopted...

Sumerian script, culture and war techniques. KEPT OWN LANG.

The Sumerians rulers may be viewed as the first rulers in history to claim to rule...

by divine right

Before entering an enjoyable afterlife, the deceased Egyptian supposedly...

would be judged by Osiris and other divine judges

Agriculture surplus made it possible for early societies to become more stable and to expand in population...

and allowed for social growth since not all the labor was focused on the land and cultivation of more grain

Although hominid existence extends back millennia, human civilization extends back only to approx....

3000 BCE

Early pharaohs had difficulty establishing their rule over all Egypt due to...

the power of local civic and religious authorities

Ur grew in power under Shulgi, who expanded everything except...

the establishment of a center for artistic development in AKkad

The great pyramids of Giza, built in the fourth dynasty, were...

constructed by thousands of peasant workers who were not slaves

Although many prehistoric settlements are known, one of the earliest of these in modern-day Turkey is...

Catalhoyuk

The method of numbering Egyptian dynasties begins with the...

Zero dynasty

The Egyptian "Book of the Dead" contains...

magic spells, formulae, and incantations needed in the afterlife

Since human beings in the Paleolithic period had no domestic animals...

they had no significant wealth beyond what they could carry

Sargon of Akkad is significant because he...

subdued SUmer and exerted influence form Ethiopia to the Indus Valley

Egyptian society consisted of...

a tiny minority of royalty and nobility and a majority class of the poor, including peasants and artisans.

The egyptians were the first...

prehistoric society

Shortly before 3000 BCE people in the Near East discovered that bronze could be produced by...

combining copper metal with arsenic or tin

Who was the first king to launch wars of aggression in the name of his primary god?

Hammurabi

Human cultures down to the fourth millennium BC are referred to as belonging to the Stone Age because they...

made most of their tools out of stone.

Jericho, one of the world's oldest villages, emerged as a seasonal settlement around...

9500 BC

Why was Sumer an uninviting environment for the first cities?

The soil is infertile and the rivers flood unpredictably

Egypt in the Old and Middle Kingdoms was maintained chiefly through...

smart trade and establishment...not conquest

While both Egypt and Mesopotamia use the wheel in pottery making, in the Early Bronze Age, only Mesopotamia used the wheel...

for transport and war chariots.

The Egyptians made notable advances in....

measuring time

Cave paintings, such as those found in Lascaux, France, are evidence of...

development of language as well as religious and artistic ideas

Both Mesopotamia and Egyptian society did not rely heavily on...

slave labor for agricultural and building work.

The Law Code of Hammurabi...

was propagandistic in purpose

Hammurbi's empire was founded on...

political strategy and diplomacy

The Epic of Gilgamesh is considered the world's first great literary masterpiece, and,,,

the work relates the adventures of a king of Uruk in ancient Sumer

The important administrator of the pharaoh Djoser who initiated pyramid building in the "step" style was...

Imhotep

Egyptian and Mesopotamian hieroglyphic writing developed...

independently of one another

Labor among Paleolithic peoples was....

not strictly divided along gender lines. Men and women shared responsibility for both hunting and gathering.

Although the Neolithic Revolution occurred over a period of several thousand years, it represents a revolutionary shift in the way human beings...

acquired the food necessary for their survival.

The Akkadian rulers of Sargon and Naram-Sin...

ruled from cities and kept their empires through conquest and commerce

Prior to the coming of the Hyksos, the ancient Egyptians...

regarded their country as the secure center of the cosmos

The Second Intermediate Period in Egyptian history was brought about...

by the conquest of Lower Egypt by a Semitic-speaking people who employed horse-drawn chariot in their warfare

Hattusilis and his successors eventually expanded the Hittite Kingdom by...

sacking the fabled city of Babylon and collecting its riches

In the book of Judges, the Hebrew people...

begin to settle and organize themselves into twelve tribes

When Akhenaten died and was succeeded by Tutankhamen...

the new pharaoh rejected his predecessor's beliefs and changed his name

The priests at the greatest Egyptian temple complexes at Thebes...

received special favor from the Eighteenth Dynasty, which worship Amon-Ra

The New Kingdom, particularly the Eighteenth Dynasty, was marked by...

the peak of Egyptian cultural achievement, and political and military power

Around 1200 BCE, an inscription by Pharaoh Ramses III records

an Egyptian victory over the "Sea Peoples," invaders from the North

The accomplishments of King Darius of Persia included...

building roads for transport and postal service

Anatolia grew in wealth and became urbanized in part due to...

the Assyrians who changed from a nomadic lifestyle to become caravan merchants

During the first millennium BCE...

iron slowly replaced bronze as the primary component of tools and weapons

One belief that other Western religions took from Zoroastrianism is the idea...

of a day of Judgement

The Eighteenth Dynasty in Egypt produced many strong pharaohs, among them...

Hatshesut

The "Babylonian Captivity" of the Hebrew people was begun in the rule of....

The Chaldeans

Although not original with them, the monotheism as developed by the Hebrew people different from other religions by the...

development of particular ritual practices that differed from other religions

Aegean civilization was long thought to have been...

the legendary or prehistoric component of Greek civilization

Influenced by their long struggle to survive, the Assyrians..

acted very aggressively toward other peoples

By the fourteenth century BCE, international relations were marked by...

diplomatic standards, polite forms of address, gifts, and alliances

The system of writing developed by the citizens of Ugarit...

used an alphabet of about thirty symbols for the consonants

Mycenaean Greece played a central role in Bronze Age networks as evidenced by...

correspondence sent by the Hittite king Hattusilis III to the "King of Ahhiyawa"

Akhenaten represents one of the earliest moves, in Western history, toward...

monotheism in religious practices.

"Indo-European" as used in historical or anthropological texts, refers to...

linguistic and cultural patterns found in India, the Near East, Europe and perhaps the Far East

As part of his religious reform, Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten and...

founded a new capital called Akhetaten (near the modern city of el-Amarna)

The Phoenicians' greatest contribution to civilization was...

the alphabet

Heinrich Schliemann and Sir Arthur Evans were...

archaeologists who dug up Troy, Mycenae and Knossos

Before the Persian empire could be formed, the Persian people had first to defeat their rulers...

the Chaldeans

The Hebrew cult of Yahweh emphasized...

the protective covenant between God and his people, helping transcend the old divisions between Israel and Judah

Unlike other rulers, Cyrus of Persia (559-529 BCE)..

allowed self-rule and religious freedom to conquered peoples

The division of the ancient kingdom of Israel was...

provoked by Solomon's oppressive regime

The Assyrian king...

also served as chief priest of the Assyrian religion

Members of the group known in the Hebrew Bible as the Philistines...

brought grapevines and olive trees to the Levant

The people who settles in Anatolia around 2000 BCE and built a powerful, militaristic kingdom there over the next four hundred years are known as the...

Hittites

Zarathustra attempted to redefine religion...

as ethical practices common to all people

We know very little about the Philistines because...

they left no written records

The culture of the Hittites was...

strongly militaristic, prone to attacks on other peoples

During the Late Bronze Age (1500-1200 BCE) in the ancient Near East, the two great imperial powers were...

New Kingdom Egypt and the Hittite empire

King David's rule was significant in establishing...

the idea of ISrael as a unified nation, fulfilling God's promises

Relations after 1500 BCE are more appropriately referred to as "transnational" because...

the political and economic networks transcended national boundaries and identities.

The Minoans' reputation...

was as a peaceful, matriarchal society is unlikely.

The defeat of the Assyrians and destruction of Nineveh was...

the work of Meded from Iran and the Chaldeans (neo-Babylonians)

The Phoenicians are also known as the...

Canaanites

The Greek term Phoenician means...

purple people

The followers of Zoroastrianism believed in...

Ahura-Mazda (truth/light) struggling with Ahriman (evil/darkness)

The earlier Assyrian empire had been devastated by the ____, but in the ninth century BCE the foundations for a neo-Assyrian empire were laid by Assurnasirpal II

Sea Peoples

Assurbanipal II, king of Assyria, has the distinction of...

acquiring a deserves reputation for cruelty and savagery

Trade in the Late Bronze Age was increasingly seaborne, rather than river borne, and allowed smaller, seaside centers to become powerful city-states...

TRUE

During the Hyksos period in Egypt (17th-16th centuries BCE)...

foreigners took over government in northern Egypt and acted like pharaohs, the invaders maintained their connections with the Aegean, Syria, and Palestine,; the weakened government in the south lost control of Nubian, and some Hyksos rulers incorporated the name of the god Ra into their own names

The division of property and wealth in New Kingdom Egypt...

favored the pharaoh, the officer class, and the temples of the gods

The origins of Greek democracy can be identified, in part, in the rule of the Athenian aristocrat...

Solon

The Greeks referred to some people with whom they came into contact as barbarians because they...

did not speak Greek

During the Second Persian War, Themistocles persuaded his fellow Athenians to...

abandon the city of Athens and let the Persians burn it

The modern term to describe the relationship between a same-sex female relationship may be traced back to the lyric poet Sappho because of her...

place of residence (Lesbos)

What form of government did Sparta impose on the defeated Athenians and their allies?

oligarchy

The philosophical tradition founded by Pythagoras believed that the ultimate essence of the universe was...

mathematical

Drama in classical Athens was transformed when...

Aeschylus introduced additional characters and a chorus to stage presentations in order to present human conflict and conversation

Hubris is...

excessive pride, which was punished by the gods.

Due to the Persian Wars, the center of Greek philosophical speculation shifted from Inoia to...

the Greek "far west."

Those Greeks who were able to accumulate wealth during the Dark Age...

eventually emerged as the Greek aristocracy

The first historian of the Western world was...

Herodotus

The Phoenicians introduced the Greeks to...

seafaring as a means of trade

the Greek polis was...

a collective group or community organized around a city

Socrates most important pupil was...

Plato

The "Ionian revolution in thought" can best be described as...

relativism

The purpose of tragedy was to...

help the audience purge their emotions

The politician who took up the cause of the theres in their quest for citizenship was...

Pericles

After Hoplites were introduced in Greece...

aristocrats lost their monopoly on military prowess

The period of time known as the "Golden Age of Classical Greece" was bounded in time by...

the end of the Persian Wars and the beginning of the Peloponnesian War

The Peloponnesian War was a response to...

Athenian oppression, superiority, and aggression

The ancient Greek synoikismos or synoecism meant...

building towns and cities, often around temples, into small states

Why was the Peloponnesian War deadlocked for an extended period of time?

Athen could not defeat Sparta on land, and Sparta could not defeat Athens at sea

Sparta...

depended on the enslaved labor of helots

The Greeks became literate again during the ninth century BCE by adopting...

the Phoenician alphabet

According to the historian Thucydides, the Peloponnesian War began...

because of the growing power of Athens, and the fear and envy this inspired in Sparta

Although Dark Age Greece is largely undocumented and therefore difficult to study thoroughly, it seems clear that...

early Greeks were economically stagnant and cut off from other Near Eastern civilization

In the symposium, Archaic Age Greek aristocrats...

enjoyed wine and listened to poetry

What best describes the structure of the Spartan government c. 600 BCE?

Sparta was ruled by a citizen assembly, a council of elders, and two kings

Since every polis needed Hoplites...

the men who took part began to demand a role in politics

The Illiad and the Odyssey...

provide evidence for the heroic ideal of late Dark Age Greece

The aristocracy of eighth - and seventh - century Athens gained their power and wealth from...

the land, not the sea

The growth of Athenian democracy, with its emphasis on equality between citizens, led to...

greater inequality between men and women

By the sixth century BCE Greeks founded numerous colonies around the Mediterranean basin. Where were the most historically significant colonies located?

Anatolia and Italy

Greek sculpture evolved from the rather stiff likenesses resembling Egyptian statuary to a style labeled as...

naturalism

Cleisthenes is important in the history of Athenian government because he...

championed the cause of the demos and took steps to limit the power of aristocrats

The Persian Wars were begun by...

a revolt instigated by the Ionian Greeks against the Persians

The Delian League helped to transform which city-state into an empire...

Athens

The Greek innovation in shipbuilding, the trireme, was so called because it had...

three banks of oars on each side

The Persian Wars might be said to be ideologically based as they were waged between...

the Greeks who believed they should rule themselves and the Persian empire

The Greek ideal of hospitality is exemplified by the encounter relate by Homer in the Iliad between...

Glaucus and Diomedes

The decisive Greek military victory over the Persians at Salamis was won by...

The Athenian fleet

The ____ was the first political and religious confederation of independent poleis pledged to support each other in times of need.

Delian league

Who persuaded Athens to use the newly discovered silver vein in the Attic countryside to build a navy in order to counter a future Persian invasion?

Themistocles

The Archaic Age of Greece begins with the emergence of the polis and the return of writing, but most of what we know of the period comes from the particular perspective of the...

Corinthians

The Sophist claim that "man is the measure of all things" means...

goodness, truth, and justice are not absolutes, but vary according to the needs and interests of human beings

Panhellenic festivals in ancient Greece included...

athletic contests honoring the gods

Tyrannies are...

a single aristocrat support by the hoplites and ruled outside the normal framework of government

Who's reforms led to the basis of Athenian government?

Solon

The Spartans failed to come to the aid of the Athenians during the battle of Marathon because...

they were in the middle of a festival

During the Archaic age, respectable aristocratic women...

were excluded from politics

Socrates' aim was to show...

that truth is real and absolute standards of goodness and virtue do exist

The ultimate aim of the military and political policies of Philip II was:

to invade Persia

Who discovered the law of specific gravity and the principles of the lever, the screw, and the pulley?

Archimedes

Macedonian rule in Egypt was characterized by:

A revival of ancient traditions associated with the pharaohs

To control his newly created empire, Alexander constructed...

Greek-style cities

Aristotle argued that good conduct is virtuous conduct and that virtue resides in aiming...

to act moderately in all things

Although he died in ____, Alexander was buried at _____

Babylon, Memphis in Egypt

Aristarchus of Samos's deduction .....

earth circled the sun

Praxiteles was unique among the ancient Greek sculptors due to his...

being the first to sculpt a female nude

Central to the Skeptical worldview is the idea that...

one must suspend judgement concerning everything

In the Republic, Plato argues against...

a return to the democratic state

All of the male rules of Macedonian Egypt took the name...

Ptolemy

Alexander the Great is said to have taken two books with him on his conquest of Persia; one was Homer's Iliad and the other was...

Xenophon's Anabasis

Why couldn't the Greek city-states unite during the fourth century BCE?

The independent temper of Greek political life made unity impossible

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