Chapter 18 The Progressive Era

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On test with: Chapter 16-The Gilded Age (1877-1896) Chapter 17-America Expands (1850-1900) Chapter 18-The Progressive Era (1900-1920) :)

Hepburn Act

This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods.

Pure Food and Drug Act

Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.

Conservation

the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources - National Parks System. First of these were Yellowstone & Yosemite

Panama Canal

a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914) Teddy's big project.

Roosevelt Corollary

Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force (AKA policeman of Latin America)

William Taft

(1908-1913), was endorsed by Roosevelt because he pledged to carry on progressive program, then he didn't appoint any Progressives to the Cabinet and actively pursued anti-trust law suits. ran for re-election in 1912 but lost to Wilson. (Republican, Chief Justice)

Dollar Diplomacy

Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Woodrow Wilson

28th U.S. President. 1913-1921. Democratic

Underwood Tariff

Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax

16th Amendment

Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income. Increased revenue.

Federal Reserve Act

a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply. Regulates currency-creates bank notes.

Clayton Antitrust Act

Corrected the problems of the Sherman Antitrust Act; outlawed certain practices that restricted competition; unions on strike could no longer be considered violating the antitrust acts

Federal Trade Commission Act

A committee formed to investigate industries engaging in interstate commerce. It was created to stop unfair trade practices and to regulate and crush monopolies. (regulate business practices)

17th Amendment

established the direct election of senators

18th Amendment

prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages

19th Amendment

gave women the right to vote

Secret ballot

Anonymous voting method that helps to make elections fair and honest

Direct primaries

an election in which voters choose candidates to represent each party in a general election

Initiative

Petitions from the public to bring legislation up for consideration

Referendum

procedure enabling voters to reject a measure passed by the legislature

Recall

can vote people out of office

Elisha Otis

developed a safety elevator that would not fall if the lifting rope broke

Henry Ford

1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.

Wright Brothers

Orville Wright credited with the design and construction of the first practical airplane. They made the first controllable, powered heavier-than-air flight along with many other aviation milestones, also showing the beginning of the individual progressive spirit.

Muckraking

The practice of journalists to expose the inappropriate actions of public officials, government organizations, or corporations. Jacob Reese & Lewis Hine (Hine worked most to expose child labor)

NAACP

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People -W.E.B du Bois

Charles Westinghouse & Nikola Tesla

Harnessing electricity and using circuits

Samuel Morse

United States portrait painter who patented the telegraph and developed the Morse code (1791-1872)

Isaac Singer

made improvements on Howe's sewing machine, as it was soon being used in the manufacture of ready-to-wear.

Cyrus Field

in 1866, he laid a transatlantic telegraph cable to Europe, one of the most important innovations in communications.

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