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History

Alfred Nobel

Swedish chemist remembered for his invention of dynamite and for the bequest that created the Nobel prizes (1833-1896)

Andrew Carnegie

United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)

Chauvinism

unreasoning and boastful devotion to one's country or sex.

Bismarcks system

German system of alliances created by Bismarck to prevent French attack and maintain a balance of power established in 1873

Three Emperors League

The 1873 alliance between Germany, Austria, and Russia.

Dual Alliance

created by Bismarck; contained Austria-Hungary and Germany when Russia left the alliance preceding the Congress of Berlin

Triple Alliance

Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry

Reinsurance Treaty

agreement between Germany and Russia that stipulated that each power would maintain neutrality should the other find itself at war.

Wilhelm II

The leader of Germany during WWI who was stubborn and was eager to show the rest of the world how powerful Germany had become.

Entente Cordiale

Friendly understanding.

Triple entente

An alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia in the years before WWI.

June 28, 1914

Start of World War I

Francis Ferdinand

Heir of Austria-Hungary thrown. assassinated while visiting Bosnia

Ultimatum

A list of demands with threats.

Mobilize

Make ready

Central powers

countries made up _________ ___________. Germany and Austria-Hungary and opposing them Russia, Serbia, and France

Schlieffen plan

Plan named after German General to attack France first in hope that it would take Russia longer to organize for war.

Paul von Hindenburg

German general lead Germany to a victory over Russia, which caused Russia to fear Germany.

Blimp named after him.

Zeppelins

Long slender airships similar to modern blimps

Red Baron

Baron Manfred Ritchthofen best German piolet.

U-boats

Aka Unterseeboot. submarines used by Germans in sea battle.

Lusitania

British liner travel boat. Sunk by German submarine.

Total war

the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort.

Nicholas II

Russian leader over thrown by revolution changing Russia to a communist country.

Treaty of brest-litovsk

Communist Russian leader signed a peace tracy with Germany in 1918.

Woodrow Wilson

American president "The United States must be neutral in fact as well as name." later called for declaration of war against Germany.

John J. Pershing

aka "Black Jack" commander of AEF(American Expeditionary Force)

Alvin York

American sergeant won Medal of Honor.

Ferdinand Foch

French general stopped the German advance and pushed Germans out of France.

November 11, 1918

Ending of World War I.

Stalemate

A situation when both sides were at a stand still.

Attrition

Were both sides try to wear each other down gradually.

Paris Peace Conference

seventy delegates from thirty-two nations came to negotiate a peace settlement for World War I.

Georges Clemenceau

French Premier

David Lloyd George

British Prime minister

Vittotio Orlando

Italian Prime minister.

Fourteen Points

A settlement that would not seek revenge on the defeated powers.

Treaty of Versailles

The treaty between the allies of Germany. signed in 1919

Reparations

Payment for war damages.

War Guilt Clause

Placed in tire blame of war on Germany and allies.

Treaty of St. Germain

Austria's treaty which gave territory to Italy and recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia.

Anschluss

Political unification.

Treaty of Sevres

Dismantled Ottoman Empire

Mandates

Former German colonies called this.

League of Nations

A international comity that could discuss differences to prevent war.

Charles Dawes

Banker who helped Germany return to financial stability.

Owen Young

American lawyer reduced Germanys amount of reparations and allowed Germany a longer time to pay them off.

Moratorium

Suspension

War Debts

Britian and France could not pay off their ___ ______

Locarno Pact

Hold the promise of peace in Europe.

Disarmament

Creating a limit of weapons., the reduction of armed forces and weapons

Washington Naval Conference

Limited the number of war ships each country could build.

April 6, 1917

USA enters World War I

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to pose the threat of war against one another

Armistice

a state of peace agreed to between opponents so they can discuss peace terms

Unrestricted submarine warfare

A policy that the Germans announced on January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters

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