Small Animal Diseases & Medical Care-Epidemiology Taxonomy Overview of Microbes

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Epidemiology,Taxonomy, Overview of Microbes Transmission and Development of Infectious Diseases ~VETT113 Small Animal Diseases and Medical Care San Juan College Veterinary Technicians

Epidemiology

the study of the cause, incidence, source, method of transmission, and distribution of disease in a population (group of animals / humans)

Epidemiologist

study infectious diseases and non-infectious diseases such as chronic illnesses, accidents, environmental issues, behavioral problems.

Subclinical or Asymptomatic

the animal is infected but no clinical signs develop

Clinical Signs or Symptomatic

the animal is infected and shows a variety of clinical signs of the disease

Morbidity

An illness or abnormal condition / diseased / unhealthy

Mortality

Death / death rate

Endemic

This is a disease that is found at a fairly constant, low incident rate in a population
Example: Rabies in certain wildlife species in certain areas

Epidemic (Outbreaks)

Occurrence of more cases of disease than would normally be expected in a population: an increase in cases
This may also be called an Epizootic when animals are affected
examples: Spinal Meningitis in school age children or typical flu cases

Pandemic

Epidemics that spread to several countries / new continents (worldwide), which affect large number of animals/people
Examples: AIDS, Influenza, Plague

Taxonomy

orderly classification of organisms into groups and this classification scheme allows every single organism to have a specific scientific name

host specific

some microbes that cause disease in some species of animals but not others.

pathogenic

species of microbes capable of causing disease in people and animals

Prokaryotes

~cells that do not have a "true" nucleus and are relatively simple cells. The genetic material is found loose in the cell.

Eukaryotes

~cells that have a defined / "true" nucleus surrounded by a membrane and are much more complex
~Fungi, Protozoa, Animal, and Plant cells

Normal Flora

Microbes that colonize the human body during birth or shortly thereafter, remaining throughout life
Ex; skin (especially the moist areas, such as the groin and between the toes), respiratory tract (particularly the nose), urinary tract, and the digestive tract (primarily the mouth and the colon)

Aerobes

require oxygen to grow

Anaerobes

require NO oxygen be present

Microbes

tiny organisms—too tiny to see without a microscope
~belonging to the bacteria group are made up of only one cell

Psychrophiles

cold-loving bacteria, can live in the subfreezing temperature of the Arctic.

Thermophiles

heat-loving bacteria that can live in extreme heat,

toxins

poisons

molecules

groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds

disease

occurs when cells or molecules in your body stop working properly, causing symptoms of illness. Many things can cause a disease, including altered genes, chemicals, aging, and infections

tissues

groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function
~Ex liver, respiratory system, or blood.

virion,

piece of a virus that comes in contact with a cell it likes

bacteriophages

A Viruses that can "infect" bacteria

antibiotic

medicines for preventing and treating bacterial infections

fungus

a primitive plant found in in air, in soil, on plants, and in water

Fungal diseases

(Mycoses) disease that effect your skin, nails, body hair, internal organs such as your lungs, and body systems such as your nervous systemmycoses.

antibiotics

medicines that kill harmful bacteria in our bodies

Protozoa

group of microscopic one-celled animals.

microorganisms

any tiny (usually microscopic) entity capable of carrying on living processes; kinds of microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses; seen only by a microscope.

microbiologists

scientists who study microbes

epidemic

a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease

pandemics

An outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide.

microbiology

study of how microbes work and how to control them. It seeks ways to use that knowledge to prevent and treat the diseases microbes cause.

pathogens

disease producing microorganisms

immune system

a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response

antigen

a substance that stimulates an immune response

immunity

the quality of being unaffected by something

antibodies

substances produced by the body to prevent disease

immune responses

Classically conditioned immune system to suppress itself at a specific cue

Immunization

a process of stimulates the body's immune system to defend against attack by particular contagious disease

Acute infections

infections that are usually severe and last a short tim

Chronic infections

usually develop from acute infections and can last for days to months to a lifetime. Sometimes people are unaware they are infected but still may be able to transmit the germ to others

Latent infections

infections that are "hidden" or "silent" and may or may not cause symptoms again after the first acute episode.

infection

occurs when a microbe—such as a virus, bacterium, fungus, or parasite—enters your body and begins to reproduce

antiparasitic

drugs used to treat parasite infections or infestations.

virus

very tiny, simple organisms not able to metabolize, grow, or reproduce on its own, but must take over a host cell that provides these functions without the aid of a host cell, and is therefore not considered "living."

genetic material

blueprint for determining the structure and behavior of a cell

capsid

The coat serves to protect the nucleic acid and aid in its transmission between host cells.

capsomeres

many small protein particles that make up a capsid

phagocytosis

a process when a virus finds a suitable host to reproduce and attaches to the surface of the cell or is ingested into the cell

Antibodies

substances that will destroy an invader and prevent the host from contracting the same disease again in the future

interferons

small proteins that are produced by a cell infected with a virus

binary fission

a type of asexual reproduction; divide in two, and each new bacterium is a clone of the original - they each contain a copy of the same DNA

flagella

long whip-like structures attached to bacteria used for movement.

invasiveness

a measure of the bacterium's ability to grow inside the host

toxigenicity

measures the capacity of the bacterium to produce toxins (chemical substances that cause damage to the host)

Fungi

large, plant-like organisms that lack chlorophyll therefore needing to absorb food from whatever they are growing on

chitin

nitrogenous substance found inthe cell wall of a fungis (not found in the cell walls of plants, but can be found in the outer shells of some crabs and mollusks)

hyphae

network of branching tubes known

mycelium

mass network of hyphae (branching tubes)

nucleus

genetic material gathered together and enclosed by a membrane

Fragmentation

mode of reproduction used fungi that form hyphae; hyphae break off and grow as new individuals.

Spores

tiny single cells that are produced by fungi that have hyphae

heterotrophs

secrete digestive enzymes and absorb the resulting soluble nutrients from whatever they are growing on.

fungistatic

drugs that can only prevent further growth of a fungus rather than to kill it

mutualistic

positive host microbe relationship that both the host and the microbe benefit

commensalistic

positive host microbe relationship where one partner of the relationship benefits (usually the microbe) and the other partner (usually the host) is neither benefited nor harmed

parasitic

negative host microbe relationship where the microbe benefits at the expense of the host and causes damage to the host

pathogenic

negative host microbe relationship where the microbe causes damage to the host

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