Potable

Drinkable (CP Only)

Infiltration

Water going into the ground

Water Table

underground surface below which the ground is wholly saturated with water

Aquifer

a body of rock or sediment that stores groundwater and allows the flow of groundwater

Artesian Formation

A sloping layer of permeable rock sandwiched by 2 layers of impermeable rock. Water is under pressure.

Capillary Action

The combination of adhesion and cohesion that allows water to travel up small spaces

Cavern

a naturally formed underground chamber or series of chambers most commonly produced by dissolving limestone.

Deficit

stored soil water is gone and the need for moisture is greater than the rainfall

Geyser

a natural hot spring that occaisionally sprays water and steam above ground

Groundwater

water that infiltrates the soil and is located in underground reservoirs called aquifers

Karst topography

a type of landscape in rainy regions where there is limestone near the surface, characterized by caverns, sinkholes, and valleys

Mineral deposit

What forms when groundwater cools or evaporates?

Ordinary well

a well that is dug or filled down to the water table

Permeability

the ability of a rock or sediment to let fluids pass through its open spaces, or pores

Porosity

percentage of open spaces in a rock or sediment

Recharge

new water that enters the aquifer from the surface

Spring

a place where groundwater seeps out of the ground

Surplus

the condition of having rainfall greater than the need for moisture when the soil is already saturated

Usage

the condition where plants draw water form the soil at times when the need for moisture is greater than the rainfall.

Water budget

describes the income and the spending of water in a region

Impermeable

characteristic of materials through which water does not easily pass, such as clay and granite

Saturated

completely filled

Zone of Aeration

region in ground where pore spaces are filled with air

Zone of Saturation

region in ground where pore spaces are completely filled with water

Capillary fringe

region above the water table with water drawn up by capillary action

Cone of Depression

lowered area of a water table produced by pumping water from a well

Aquitard

earth materials which do not allow the free movement of groundwater through it

Ogallala

the countries largest aquifer located under the high plains (CP Only)

Perched Water Table

where an aquitard creates a local zone of saturation above the main water table

Pressure surface

The level that water in an artesian well will reach

Hard water

water that contains high amounts of minerals (as calcium and magnesium ions) that limit the formation of lather with soap

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