AP Psych Chapter 7A

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Myers Psychology for AP 1e - Chapter 07B

memory

the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 255)

encoding

the processing of information into the memory system—for example, by extracting meaning. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 257)

storage

the retention of encoded information over time. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 257)

retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 257)

sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 257)

short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 257)

long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 257)

working memory

a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 258)

parallel processing

the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 130, 258)

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 258)

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 259)

rehearsal

the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 259)

spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 260)

serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 260)

visual encoding

the encoding of picture images. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 261)

acoustic encoding

the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 261)

semantic encoding

the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 261)

imagery

mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 263)

mnemonics

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 263)

chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 264)

iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 266)

echoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 266)

long-term potentiation (LTP)

an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 269)

flashbulb memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 270)

amnesia

the loss of memory. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 271)

implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative or procedural memory.) (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 272)

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." (Also called declarative memory.) (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 272)

hippocampus

a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 272)

recall

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 274)

recognition

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 274)

relearning

a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 274)

priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 121, 275)

déjà vu

that eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 276)

mood-congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 278)

proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 282)

retroactive interference

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 282)

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e pp. 284, 483)

misinformation effect

incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 286)

source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories. (Myers Psychology for AP 1e p. 287)

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