Nervous System

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Dendrite

nerve fiber that carries impulses toward the cell body

Axon

single nerve fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body

Myelin sheath

increases the rate of impulses transmission, insulates, and maintains the axon

Afferent

sensory nerves carrying messages to the brain and spinal cord

Efferent

motor nerves carrying messages from the brain to the muscles and glands

Synapses

space between dendrites and axons

Associative

carries both sensory and motor messages

Central Nervous System

consist of brain and spinal cord

Cerebrum

maintains and is responsible for reasoning, thought, memory, speaking sensation, sight, hearing, and voluntary body movement

Cerebellum

responsible for coordination of muscles, balance and posture, and muscle tone

Diencephalon

located between the cerebrum and midbrain

Thalamus

acts as a relay center and directs sensory impulses to the cerebrum

Hypothalamus

regulates and controls the ANS and involved with emotions such as anger, fear, pleasure, pain and affection, temperature, appetite, water balance, and vasoconstriction and vasodilation

Midbrain

located below the cerebrum at the top of the brain stem; responsible for conducting impulses between brain parts and for certain eye and auditory reflexes

Pons

located below the midbrain in the brain stem; responsible for conducting messages to other parts of the brain and reflex actions including masticating, tasting, and production of saliva

Medulla Oblongata

lowest part of the brain stem and connects w/ the spinal cord; responsible for regulating the heartbeat, respiration, swallowing, coughing and blood

Spinal Cord

a column of nervous tissue and extending from the medulla oblongata to the first or second lumbar vertebrae; responsible for nerve conduction

Dura Mater

thick, outer layer

Arachnoid

middle delicate weblike layer

Pia Meter

intermost layer, closed attached to the brain and spinal cord and contains blood vessels that nourish the nerve tissue

Ventricles

four hollow spaces in the brain that are connected w/ each other and w/ the space under the arachnoid membrane

Cerebrospinal fluid

circulates continually between the ventricles and through the subarachnoid space; acts as a shock absorber to protect the brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous System

consists of the somatic and autonomic nervous system

Autonomic Nervous System

helps maintain a balance in the involuntary functions of the body, allows the body to react in times of emergency

Sympathetic

responds in time of emergency and prepares the body to act by increasing heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, and slowing activity in the digestive tract

Parasympathetic

after the emergency to counteract the action by slowing heart rate, decreasing respiration, lowering blood pressure, and increasing activity in the digestive tract

Somatic Nervous System

consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and their branches and 31 pairs of spinal nerves and their branches

Neurologist

specializes with the nerves

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