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archipelago

group of islands in an expanse of water

arable

land that is fit for farming, fertile

ethnocentrism

prejudice based on the premise that one's own culture or way of life is superior to all other people cultures or ways of life

homogeneous culture

one type of people making up a culture

lord

A rich land owner who ruled a great feudal estate

vassal

A holder of land under feudal agreements; also a humble servant

fief

Land owned by a lord given to a vassal in return for a service

knight

A man who received honor and land in exchange for serving a lord as a soldier.

serf

a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord

chivalry

Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages

manor

A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.

Clergy

A body of officials who perform religious services, such as priests, ministers or rabbis.

Sacrament

something considered to have sacred significance

tithe

church tax

lay investiture

The appointment of bishops and abbots by secular rulers, often in exchange for temporal protection.

canon law

Church law

monastry

religious community where monks live and work.

Crusade

a strong movement to advance a cause or idea

Gothic

of the middle ages

Simony

the selling of Church offices

Reconquista

The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.

Inquisition

church court set up to stamp out heresy

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