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Important Vocab For Chapter 12

Weathering

the breakup of rock due to exposure to processes at or near Earth's surface

Mechanical Weathering

break up without any change in composition

Chemical Weathering

Minerals are changed into new minerals

Frost Wedging

When ice wedges and breaks rocks apart

Abrasion

When chunks of rock break off a larger rock because of friction between the larger rock and the ground

Exfoliation

Upward expansion causes rocks to break off

Hydrolysis

When water causes a chemical change to a mineral or rock

Acid Rain

Rain that contains unusually high amounts of acid

Oxidation

A chemical change that is caused by oxygen

Parent Material

The material from which a soil is formed

Residual Soil

Soil whose parent material is the bedrock underneath it

Transport Soil

Soil whose parent material is loose soil, boulders, sands, and gravels

Soil Profile

The cross sections of earth exposed by digging

Soil Horizon

The three distinct layers in the soil

Top Soil

The soil of A- horizon; contains humus

Sub Soil

The soil of B- horizon; contains clay that has been washed down from top soil

Mass movement

The downward transportation of weathered materials by gravity

Erosion

The removal and transport of materials by natural agents

Talus

Rock fragments that have been weathered from a cliff and pulled down by gravity

Landslide

Movement of a mass of bedrock or loose soil and rock down a hill, mountain or cliff

Creep

Slow imperceptible movement of soil down a slope

Slump

Blocks of land tilt and move downhill along a surface that curves into the slope

Earth Flow

Mass of weathered material that has been saturated with water that flows downhill

Mudflow

Rapid movement of water that contains large amount of suspended silt and clay

Soil Fertility

The ability to grow plants on fertile soil

Soil Depletion

Soil that lacks nutrients required to grow plants

Salinization

The deposition of minerals that cause soil to lose their fertility

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