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Mastering Biology Chapter 24

Feathers either play a role, or may have played a role, in _____.

all of these

_____ is rapid speciation under conditions in which there is little competition.

Adaptive radiation

Mass extinctions create conditions that promote _____.

adaptive radiation

The appearance of an evolutionary novelty promotes _____.

adaptive radiation

The different finch species found on the Galápagos Islands probably arose as a result of _____.

Adaptive radiation

Two animals are considered members of different species if they _____.

cannot mate and produce viable, fertile offspring

According to the phylogenetic species concept, what is a species?

a set of organisms with a unique genetic history

What is genetic drift?

A change in allele frequencies caused by random events

Why are the large finches now living on the Galápagos Islands different from the original source population from a nearby island?

All three answers are correct.

True or false? The last ice age produced many different species mainly because populations dispersed and colonized new habitats.

False

Which of the following statements about reinforcement is true?

Reinforcement is a type of natural selection.

A subset of a population of birds leaves its habitat on the mainland and colonizes a nearby island. The birds, after a period of time, become reproductively isolated. The island sinks and the population of birds that lived on the island returns to its original habitat. Which of the following statements about these bird populations is true?

The populations will not be able to interbreed because they are different species.

A population of birds colonizes an area in which the insects upon which they feed live inside trees. Which of the following events accounts for an observed increase in average beak size in the bird population over time?

Increased fitness of large-beaked birds, leading to natural selection

True or false? A flood that separates a population of frogs onto opposite sides of a lake is an example of a vicariance event that may result in allopatric speciation.

True

Which term is used to describe populations that live close enough to interbreed?

Sympatry

What prevents speciation from occurring in sympatric populations?

Gene Flow

True or false? A mating between a tetraploid individual and a diploid individual produces biologically fit offspring.

False

Which of the following statements about autopolyploid individuals is true?

They contain more than two haploid sets of chromosomes

What would be the ploidy of the viable gametes produced by a tetraploid individual if nondisjunction of all chromosomes occurred in meiosis I?

Tetraploid

How can an allopolyploid plant become a biologically fit new species?

Nondisjunction event during mitosis

How many chromosomes would be found in an allopolyploid plant if its parents had diploid numbers of 2 and 10, respectively?

Haploid number of 6

Which of these is an example of temporal isolation?

One species is nocturnal, and the other species is not.

According to the _____ model, evolution occurs in spurts; species evolve relatively rapidly then remain unchanged for long periods.

punctuated equilbrium

Which of the following has been shown to cause speciation most rapidly?

autopolyploidy

The largest unit within which gene flow can readily occur is a

species

Which of the following factors would not contribute to allopatric speciation?

Gene flow between the two populations is extensive

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