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On the eve of European colonization of the Americas, most Western Europeans lived in

small, relatively isolated, rural communities.

The Mayan peoples of Mesoamerica

devised a calendar system that predicted solar and lunar eclipses accurately.

Martin Luther believed that

people could be saved by grace, which was a gift from god.

King Henry VIII initiated the English Reformation

by declaring himself supreme head of the church of England but making few changes in traditional religious dogma, organization or ritual.

Early European contact with West Africa

stimulated West African trade networks in metals and other goods.

Cahokia was

a significant Mississippian city with more than one hundred temple mounds.

Under its policy of mercantilism, the British monarchy

gained power from increased import duties that added to the royal treasury by maximizing exports of manufactured goods and imports of unfinished products.

The Aztecs lived in present-day

Mexico.

Typically, when an English woman of the fifteenth century married,

she gave up ownership of her property to her husband.

The number of Indians living in Mesoamerica declined from about 30 million in the fifteenth century to approximately 3 million by 1650 because

disease carried by Europeans decimated most Indian tribes who came into contact with Europeans.

The ancestors of the Native American peoples

migrated by land from northeastern Asia.

The European trade in African slaves was initiated in the fifteenth century by the

Portuguese.

Following the conquest of the Aztecs, the Spanish were able to extend their control mostly because of

smallpox and other epidemics that decimated the native inhabitants

In 1450, most Western Europe inhabitants were

peasants.

By 6000 B.C., some Native American peoples began to

develop horticulture.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes Presbyterianism in the late sixteenth century?

Many Presbyterians relied on a group of lay elders to help the minister in running the church.

Stimulated by the wealth and learning of the Arab world, the European Renaissance began in

Italy

The Puritans in late sixteenth-century England

...

In the 1400s, West African peoples

were small farmers living in extended families.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the response of England to tobacco from the New World?

The English developed an insatiable appetite despite the king's disapproval of the habit.

By the 1560s, Spain's main policy in North America was to

prevent other European states from establishing bases there, which could threaten Spain's power.

William Berkeley

aroused great resentment because of his corruption, political favoritism, and high-handed treatment of the House of Burgesses during his term as royal governor of Virginia.

The Mayflower Compact

was the first "constitution" adopted in North America.

As a result of the fur trade, most Indian tribes of the North American interior

were eager to control it in order to obtain European goods.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes indentured servitude in the Chesapeake colonies?

A male servant could produce five times his purchase price in a year.

When they settled in the New World, the Puritans

pictured themselves as a select few chosen by God to preserve true Christianity in America.

Bacon's Rebellion

showed how dissatisfied the western settlers of Virginia had become with the emerging planter-merchant elite.

The new colony of Maryland

experienced a struggle between the governor and the assembly over the right to initiate legislation.

The Spanish Franciscan missionaries

tried to impose cultural assimilation and forced labor along with religious conversion of indigenous peoples.

Lord Baltimore, the proprietor of Maryland, established that colony as a haven for

Catholics but also ordered toleration for Protestants.

In contrast to the Spanish missionaries, the French Jesuits

tried to understand the Indians' values and worldview.

One reason the Massachusetts Bay Puritans banished Roger Williams was that

he questioned the morality and legality of the English seizure of native people's lands.

As a result of the fur trade, most Indian tribes of the North American interior

were eager to control it in order to obtain European goods.

Bacon's Rebellion planter-merchant elite.

showed how dissatisfied the western settlers of Virginia had become with the emerging

Puritan magistrates were angry with Anne Hutchinson because she

claimed that believers received direct revelation from God.

William Berkeley Virginia.

aroused great resentment because of his corruption, political favoritism, and high-handed treatment of the House of Burgesses during his term as royal governor of

The Puritans believed that Native Americans

had been placed in America by "the devil" to prevent the spread of the Gospel there.

When they settled in the New World, the

Puritans pictured themselves as a select few chosen by God to preserve true Christianity in America.

Bacon's Rebellion contributed to the rise of slavery in the Chesapeake region

by convincing the landholding elite that the presence of a large class of white indentured servants was dangerous and that the colony's labor needs should be met by black slaves.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes Africans in Virginia after the 1660s?

Africans found themselves more entrenched in slavery as a permanent condition.

The new colony of Maryland

experienced a struggle between the governor and the assembly over the right to initiate legislation.

The majority of persons arrested on charges of witchcraft in Salem were

women

In early Virginia and Maryland, most indentured servants

did not escape from poverty.

As a result of Bacon's Rebellion, .

the planter-merchants curbed political corruption and included some ambitious yeomen in the government

Among the goals of Nathaniel Bacon's "Manifesto and Declaration of the People" was

the death or removal of all Native Americans.

One reason the Massachusetts Bay Puritans banished Roger Williams was that he

questioned the morality and legality of the English seizure of native people's lands.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the response of England to tobacco from the New World?

The English developed an insatiable appetite despite the king's disapproval of the habit.

The Virginia colonist John Rolfe

introduced tobacco production in the colony.

Most colonial-era slaves dealt with repression and violence by

engaging in continual negotiation processes with slave owners for better food, clothing, privileges, and working conditions.

As part of its mercantilist policy, England

drove the Dutch from New Netherland.

The first colonists who settled South Carolina and introduced racial slavery arrived from

Barbados.

As the American settlements matured in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, colonial legislators

began limiting the powers of crown officials.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes African states' involvement in the Atlantic slave trade?

The Asante kings used the profits of slave trading to expand their political dominion.

Most colonists' reaction to the Navigation Acts was to

resent and resist the trade restrictions.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes the change in English economic philosophy toward the colonies beginning in the 1650s?

No longer content with a favorable balance of trade with European countries, the English government was determined to regulate trade with the colonies.

In general, the mercantilist policies pursued by the British government during the eighteenth century called for the American colonies to produce

agricultural goods and raw materials.

The experience of West Africans on the Middle Passage to slavery in the Americas included

widespread disease, malnutrition, and death.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the Dutch reaction to the 1689 rebellion against Lieutenant Governor Francis Nicholson in New York?

Initially, all classes and ethnic groups rallied behind his ouster.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the lives of laborers and slaves in the colonial seaport cities?

Many families depended on the work of women and children and, in hard times, on petty crime to make ends meet.

The Molasses Act was significant in that it

touched off political clashes between Britain and the colonies, foreshadowing a new era of imperial control.

The British policy of "salutary neglect" of the American colonies in the early eighteenth century meant

relaxing supervision of the colonies' internal affairs while concentrating on defense and trade policies.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes life in the West Indies for survivors of the Middle Passage in the 1700s?

Because the price of slaves was low and the price of sugar was high, slave owners worked their slaves to death and then replaced them with new slaves.

Late-seventeenth-century Quakers were

believers in an "inner light" of grace or understanding given by God to each man and woman.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes slavery in the Chesapeake by the mid-eighteenth century?

Most slaves were born in North America.

Which of the following changes occurred in white society in the Chesapeake colonies at the same time that slavery was being forced on Africans?

A social hierarchy characterized by strict patriarchy and class structure hardened.

Sir Robert Walpole's political strategy weakened imperial rule in America by

appointing men of little talent to the Board of Trade, which weakened respect for the royal government and, in turn, weakened Americans' respect for the royal government.

In his Two Treatises on Government, John Locke

stated that a government derives its legitimacy from the consent of the governed.

A successful, full-scale revolt was nearly impossible for colonial-era slaves to achieve primarily because

whites were armed and, except in coastal South Carolina, outnumbered slaves.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the changes in colonial politics in the early eighteenth century?

The royal governors remained powerful, but the political authority of local leaders and the assemblies greatly increased.

During the colonial wars of the first half of the eighteenth century, the Iroquois and their allies

adopted a policy of neutrality, exploiting the opportunities for trade with both France and Britain.

John Locke held that

human character could be shaped by education, rational thought, and purposeful action.

In the campaign against New France, Prime Minister William Pitt

counted on the numerical advantage of the English settler population over the French.

George Whitefield owed much of his success as an evangelical preacher to

all of the answers are correct.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes sexuality in eighteenth-century New England?

Young people increasingly used premarital pregnancy to force their parents into allowing them to marry.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes colonial Pennsylvania?

The rise of the wheat trade in the mid-eighteenth century and an influx of poor families introduced marked social divisions.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes women's property rights in the English colonies?

When a woman married, legal ownership of all her personal property passed to her husband.

The evangelist George Whitefield's attitude toward slavery and Africans was that

the brutality of slave owners was sinful, and Africans should be brought within the Christian fold.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the religious controversy over the Great Awakening during the 1740s and 1750s?

The Old Lights passed laws prohibiting traveling preachers from speaking to a congregation without the minister's permission.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes rural life in the New England colonies during the eighteenth century?

European visitors found that the sense of personal worth and dignity in rural New England contrasted sharply with European peasant life.

Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1763), Britain

annexed French Canada, French lands east of the Mississippi River, and Spanish Florida.

Hostilities between French troops and Virginians, led by Colonel George Washington, began in 1754 at

Fort Duquesne.

The Enlightenment, which reached America between the 1720s and 1760s,

emphasized the power of human reason to shape the world.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes Quakers' social values in early Pennsylvania?

Quakers' pacifism prevented friction with Native Americans until the 1750s.

Which of the following statements most accurately describes inheritance in colonial New England?

Fathers had a cultural duty to provide inheritances for their children.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes Quakers' social values in early Pennsylvania?

Quakers' pacifism prevented friction with Native Americans until the 1750s.

The religious group with the highest rate of success in converting slaves in the mid-eighteenth-century southern colonies was the

Baptist Church.

Christopher Columbus's success in reaching North America can be attributed primarily to his

luck, because he had seriously underestimated the size of the globe and the width of the Atlantic ocean.

During most of the sixteenth century, the wealthiest nation in Europe was

Spain.

Among the goals of Nathaniel Bacon's "Manifesto and Declaration of the People" was

the death or removal of all Native Americans.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the New England Puritans' attitude and behavior toward Native Americans?

Compared to the Spanish Franciscans in New Mexico, the Puritans failed miserably in controlling the Native Americans.

Bacon's Rebellion

Showed how dissatisfied the western settlers of Virginia had become with the emerging planter-merchant life.

Which Of The Following Statements Most Accurately Characterizes The New England Puritans' Attitude And Behavior Toward Native Americans?

compared with the spanish franciscans in new mexico, the puritans failed miserably in controlling the native americans.

As a result of Bacon's Rebellion,

the planter-merchants curbed political corruption and included some ambitious yeomen in the government.

After the first English settlements in North America failed

merchants took charge of English expansion.

In the 1630's Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony

insisted that only men who were church member could vote.

Which of the following most likely characterizes life in the West indies for survivors of the Middle Passage in the 1700's?

Because the price of slaves was low and the price of sugar was high, slave owners worked their slaves to death and then replaced them with new slaves.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the impact of the slave trade on Africa?

The goods Europeans traded to Africa were worth only one-tenth to one-third of the goods the slaves produced.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the British colonial frontier before 1750?

A lack of natural transportation routes kept the British east of the Appalachians.

Benjamin Franklin

founded a club of mutual improvement in Philadelphia to discuss moral and political questions.

Settling in the eighteenth-century America, most German immigrants

tended to hold themselves culturally apart by marrying among themselves and speaking German; otherwise, they were loyal subjects.

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes the early Industrial Revolution and its impact on America?

New machines and new business practices enabled the British to produce more wool, linens, and other goods than ever before and to sell them to Americans at lower prices, allowing Americans to raise their standard of living.

The most numerous voluntary (nonslave) emigrants to the British North America in the eighteenth century were the

Scots-Irish.

The Great Awakening of the 1740s and 1750s

reinforced the communal values of farm families in rural villages

Farmwives throughout the colonies contributed to their families by

performing a wide range of duties both inside the house and in the family's fields; they were subordinate yet essential contributors to the family's welfare.

The Anglo-American conquest of Canada was completed with the capture of

Montreal

The first phase of the Reformation had its greatest success in

Germany.

Before the Europeans made significant contact with West Africa,

slaves were sometimes sold into bondage by their families.

The 1739 Stono River slave revolt occurred because

the Spanish governor in Florida had promised freedom and land to slaves who escaped from their English owners.

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