Life-Span Development ch 5 Physcial Development in Infancy

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Life-Span Development ch 5, 11th edition John W Santrock

cephalocaudal pattern

sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top, with physical growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually working from top to bottom

proximodistal pattern

sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremeties

lateralization

specialization of functionin one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other

neuron

nerve cell that handles information processing at the cellular level

sudden infant death syndrome

condition that occurs when an infant stops breathing, usually during the night, and suddenly dies without an apparent cause

dynamic systems theory

the perspective on motor development that seeks to explain how motor behaviors are assembled for perceiving and acting

reflexes

built-in reactions to stimuli that govern the newborns movements which are automatic and beyond the newborns control

rooting reflex

newborns built-in reaction that occurs when the infants cheek is stroked and the infant turns his head townard the side that was touched in an apparent effort to find soemthing to suck

sucking reflex

newborns built-in reaction to automatically suck an object placed in its mouth which enable the infant to get nourishment before he or she has associated a nipole with food

Moro reflex

neonatal startle response that occurs in reaction to a sudden, intense noise or movement

grasping reflex

neonatal reflex that occurs when something touches the infants plams, the infants responds by grasping it tightly

gross motor skills

motor skills that involve large muscle activities

fine motor skills

motor skills that involve more finely tuned movements

sensation

the product of the interaction between information and the sensory receptors- the eyes, ears, tongue, nostrils, and skin

perception

the interpretation of what is sensed

ecological view

the view that perception functions to bring organisms in contact with the environment and to increase adaptation

affordances

opportunities for interaction offered by objects that fit within our capabilities to perfrom functional activities

visual preferences method

a method used to determine whether infants can distiguish one stimulus from another by measuring the length of time they attend to different stimli

habituation

decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentation of the stimulus

dishabituation

recovery of habituated response after a change in stimulation

size constancy

recognition that an object remains the same even though the retinal image of the object changes

shape constancy

the recognition that an objects shape remains the same even though its orientation to us changes

intermodal perception

the ability to relate and integrate information from two or more sensory modalities

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