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saprophytic

fungi that live on dead organic matter
• Most fungi fall into this category

parasitic

fungi that obtain food and nutrients from other organisms; the other organism is harmed in this process.

hyphae

cytoplasmic filaments

Chytridiomycetes

• Only fungal group that have developmental stages with Flagellated zoospores and gametes help these fungi survive in their moist environment.
• Parasitic or saprophytic lifestyle
• Only fungi with true alternation of generations
• Inhabit moist or aquatic environments

Zygomycetes

Bread Molds
• This group is characterized by the zygosporangium (diploid zygote + protective wall).
- product of 2 haploid gametangia (specialized hyphae) merging
• capable of surviving harsh environmental conditions
• forms haploid spores via meiosis
• Most members are saprophytic.

Ascomycetes

The Sac Fungi
• This group includes yeasts, truffles, and many molds.
• Are considered macro fungi
- Produce distinctive fruiting bodies whose function is to form and disperse sexual spores.

mass of hyphae

mycelium --> feeding structure

ectotrophic mycorrhizae

enmesh around the outer cortex of the root (Basidiomycota or Ascomycota)

Endotrophic mycorrhizae

, penetrate into the root cells

Glomeromycetes

• Distinguished by lack of sexual structures and hyphae morphology
• Hyphae digest small areas of the plant cell wall and enter root cells
- The tip of the hyphae branch to form dense clusters (arbuscles) which function in nutrient transfer between the fungus and the plant

The Sac Fungi

• This group includes yeasts, truffles, and many molds.
• Are considered macro fungi
- Produce distinctive fruiting bodies whose function is to form and disperse sexual spores.

Parasitic Sac Fungi

• Powdery mildew
• Two types of hyphae
- Conidiophores: involved in asexual reproduction
• 1 nucleus per cell (septate)
• Mitosis results in chains of conidia
being produced at the tips of the conidiophores.

Ascus

fruiting body involved in sexual reproduction
• Produces ascospores

The Imperfect Sac Fungi

• Lack sexual structures
• Reproduce asexually via conidia and conidiophores
• Include antibiotic producing molds, cheese flavor fungi, and infection-causing molds

Basidiomycetes

This group includes mushrooms, puffballs, shelf fungi, rusts, and smuts.
• There is no asexual reproduction in this group.

Basidiocarp

the fruiting body (mushroom) formed by intertwined dikaryotic hyphae (formed by the fusion of 2 monokaryotic hyphae

Basidia

microscopic cells in the fruiting body (lining the gills) that produce sexual spores

Basidiospores

sexual spores produced by basidia

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