Advanced Management & Organizational Behavior

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So called "soft" people skills are a necessary ingredient for success for today's managers.

True

Later analysis of the Hawthorne studies supported initial conclusions.

False

According to McGregor's Theory X, the typical employee can learn to accept and seek responsibility.

False

According to W. Edwards Deming, when things go wrong, there is roughly an 85% chance the system (e.g. management, machinery, or rules) is at fault and about a 15% chance the individual employee is at fault.

True

A meta-analysis is a statistical pooling technique that permits behavioral scientists to draw general conclusions about certain variables from many different studies.

True

Unethical behavior occurs: A) mostly in the bottom levels of the organization
B) mostly within the top levels of the organization
C) mostly during colder seasons
D) from the bottom to the top of the organization
E) from new employees

D) From the bottom to the top of the organization

Which of the following is an assumption of McGregor's Theory Y?
A) The typical person cares only about security.
B) The typical person prefers to be directed.
C) The typical person avoids work if possible.
D) The typical person requires close supervision.
E) The typical person is capable of self-direction and self-control.

E) The typical person is capable of self-direction and self-control.

In a __________, groups of people from a specified population respond to questionnaires, which researchers use to draw conclusions about the relevant population.
A) field study
B) sample survey
C) laboratory study
D) case study
E) meta-analysis

B) Sample survey

A __________ is an in-depth analysis of a single individual, group or organization and is characterized by realistic but not very generalizable results.
A) case study
B) meta-analysis
C) sample survey
D) field study
E) laboratory study

A) Case study

The definition of Corporate Social Responsibility indicates that:
A) Corporations are expected to go above and beyond following the law and making a profit.
B) Corporations have the responsibility to attend social events within the community.
C) Corporations are to clearly contribute to reducing the frequency of unethical behaviour
D) Corporations are to have positive relationships within the organization
E) Corporations are expected to follow all laws

A) Corporations are expected to go above and beyond following the law and making a profit.

Race represents an external dimension of diversity.

False

Internal dimensions of diversity contain an element of control or choice.

False

Current day minority groups do not experience their own glass ceiling.

False

The Family & Medical Leave Act of 1993 requires employers to provide 12 weeks of unpaid leave for medical and family reasons, including childbirth, adoption, or family emergency.

False

Team performance is positively related to a team's diversity in gender, ethnicity, age and education.

True

__________ is an example of an external dimension of diversity.
A) Religion
B) Race
C) Gender
D) Personality
E) Union affiliation

A) Religion

Affirmative action is __________ driven.
A) ethically
B) strategically
C) pragmatically
D) behaviorally
E) legally

E) Legally

All of the following are tips for women to advance to senior positions and career success except:
A) Seek mentors for different purposes
B) Learn to play golf
C) Build social capital
D) Don't boast about accomplishments
E) Seek work life balance

D) Don't boast about accomplishments

Which of the following is NOT one of the Generic Action Options for handling diversity according to R Roosevelt Thomas Jr.?
A) Deny
B) Suppress
C) Tolerate
D) Affirmative Action
E) Foster Mutual Adaptation

D) Affirmative action

Which of the following Generic Action Options for handling diversity states that all diverse people will learn to fit in or become like the dominant group?
A) Suppression
B) Toleration
C) Assimilation
D) Building relationships
E) None of these

C) Assimilation

Organizational culture is the set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit assumptions held by a group that determines how the group perceives, thinks about, and reacts to its various environments.

True

Enacted values represent the explicitly stated values and norms that are preferred by an organization.

False

A clan culture has an internal focus and values flexibility rather than stability and control.

True

Employees working in organizations with hierarchical or market-based cultures reported lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment, but have greater intention to keep their jobs.

False

The encounter phase is the last stage in the organizational socialization process.

False

___________ is a long term plan outlining actions needed to achieve a desired result.
A) Vision
B) Formal Statement
C) Strategic Plan
D) Cultural Change Plan
E) None of the above

C) Strategic plan

Which of the following is an example of a psychosocial function of mentoring?
A) Sponsorship.
B) Coaching.
C) Protection.
D) Providing exposure and visibility.
E) Friendship.

E) Friendship

In the __________ phase of the organizational socialization process, employees begin to learn what the organization is really like. This phase begins when the employment contract is signed.
A) encounter
B) cultivation
C) anticipatory socialization
D) change and acquisition
E) separation

A) Encounter

A __________ developmental network is composed of a few weak ties from one social system such as an employer or professional association.
A) receptive
B) traditional
C) entrepreneurial
D) opportunistic
E) encounter

A) Receptive

The __________ network is the strongest type of developmental network.
A) receptive
B) traditional
C) entrepreneurial
D) opportunistic
E) encounter

C) Entrepreneurial

Culture generally remains below the threshold of conscious awareness because it involves taken-for-granted assumptions about how one should perceive, think, act, and feel.

True

Stereotyping is the belief that one's native country, culture, language, and modes of behavior are superior to all others.

False

The Scandinavians represent a high-context culture.

False

Mexicans tend to have a polychronic view of time.

True

In the Hofstede Study, the individualism-collectivism dimension represents the strength of the bond between individuals and societal groups.

True

The Koreans have a relatively __________ culture.
A) universalist
B) relativist
C) low-context
D) high-context
E) monochromic

D) High-context

People from __________ cultures rely heavily on situational cues for meaning when perceiving and communicating with another person.
A) high-context
B) low-context
C) universalist
D) polychromic
E) relativist

A) High-context

People in monochronic cultures tend to view time as
A) flexible.
B) cyclical.
C) linear.
D) multidimensional.
E) fluid.

C) Linear

To describe anyone living or working in a foreign country, we use the term:
A) Foreigner
B) Alien
C) Expatriate
D) Expirate
E) None of the above

C) Expatriate

Based on the Hofstede Study, __________ reflects the extent to which people expect inequality in social institutions (e.g. the family, organization, or government).
A) power distance
B) individualism-collectivism
C) masculinity-femininity
D) uncertainty avoidance
E) long-term versus short-term orientation

A) Power distance

Generally speaking, the more narrow the span of control in an organization, the higher the organization's administrative costs.

True

The modular structure overlays a vertical and with a horizontal structure which results in two command structures - functional and divisional.

False

A learning organization is one that proactively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge and that changes its behavior on the basis of new knowledge and insights.

True

Whether or not an organization meets or exceeds its goals is one way to judge the effectiveness of an organization.

True

One of the benefits of innovation identified in the Model of Innovation was improving on services and products the organization already has.

True

__________ refers to the idea that each employee should report to only one manager.
A) Span of control
B) The Unity of command principle
C) Emergent leadership
D) Bureaucracy
E) A New-style organization

B) The Unity of command principle

Which of the following is identified as an early warning sign of decline in the text?
A) Effective communication if decreased.
B) Goals are not clear and decision benchmarks are not present.
C) Administrative procedures become a burden and are cumbersome.
D) Answer selections A and C only.
E) All of these are early warning signs of decline.

E) All of these are early warning signs of decline

A synonym for the term "innovation" in the context of organizational innovation would be:
A) invention.
B) creativity.
C) integration.
D) All of the above are correct.
E) None of the above are correct.

E) None of the above are correct

When measuring organizational effectiveness, the __________ approach is appropriate when powerful stakeholders can significantly benefit or harm the organization.
A) internal processes
B) goal accomplishment
C) stakeholder audit
D) strategic constituencies
E) resource acquisition

D) Strategic constituencies

Which of the following is a characteristic of mechanistic organizations?
A) Top-down communication patterns.
B) Democratic decision making.
C) Low emphasis on obedience and loyalty.
D) Broad task definitions.
E) A clear link between an individual's contribution and the organization's purpose.

A) Top-down communication patterns

Hardiness refers to a personality trait that allows a person to neutralize stress by perceptually or behaviorally transform negative stressors into positive challenges.

True

According to the typology of change, innovative change involves introducing a practice that is new to the industry.

False

In Lewin's change model, the "unfreezing" stage involves getting employees to become dissatisfied with the old way of doing things.

True

A company's strategic plan outlines the organization's long-term direction and actions necessary to achieve planned results.

True

Research in the area of resistance to change revealed that high levels of self esteem were negatively associated with resistance to change.

False

Which of the following was not mentioned as a stress reduction technique in the discussion in the text?
A) Biofeedback
B) Hypnotism
C) Holistic Wellness
D) Cognitive Restructuring

B) Hypnotism

Which of the following is not a reason why employees resist change?
A) Past failures
B) Fear of failure
C) Peer pressure
D) Surprise or fear of the unknown
E) Past success

A) Past failures

__________ is a commonly used method to overcome resistance to change in situations where speed is essential and where the change initiators possess considerable power.
A) Education/communication
B) Facilitation/support
C) Participation/involvement
D) Explicit/implicit coercion
E) Manipulation/co-optation

D) Explicit/implicit coercion

According to the Model of Occupational Stress, __________ is an example of a group-level stressor.
A) Harassment
B) Role conflict
C) Work overload
D) Technology
E) Family

A) Harassment

A(n) __________ coping strategy consists of using methods such as relaxation, meditation, medication, or exercise to manage stress.
A) escape
B) symptom management
C) control
D) hardiness
E) buffering

B) Symptom management

Organization

System of consciously coordinating activities of two or more people

Oranizational behavior

Interdisciplinary field dedicated to better understanding and managing people at work

Theory Y

McGregor's modern and positive assumptions about employees being responsible and creative

Total quality management

An organizational culture dedicated to training, continuous improvement and customer satisfaction

E-business

Running the entire business via the Internet

Human capital

The productive potential of one's knowledge and actions

Social capital

The productive potential of strong, trusting, and cooperative relationships

Management

Process of working with and through others to achieve organizational objectives, efficiently and ethically, amid constant change

Contingency approach

Using management tools and techniques in a situationally appropriate manner, avoiding the one-best-way mentality

Ethics

Study of moral issues and choices

Corporate social responsibility

The idea that corporations are expected to go avoe and beyond following the law and making a profit

Whistle-blowing

Reporting unethical/illegal acts to outside third parties

Morally attentive

Faithfully considering the ethical implications of one's actions

Meta-analysis

Pools the results of many studies thorugh statistical procedure

Field study

Examination of variables in real-life settings

Lab study

Manipulation and measurement of variables in contrived situations

Sample survey

Questionnaire responses from a sample of peope

Case study

In-depth study of a single person, group, or organization

Diversity

The host of individual diferences that make people different from and similar to each other

Discrimination

Occurs whn employment decisions are based on factors that are not job related

Affirmative action

Focuses on achieving equality of opportunity in an organization

Managing diversity

Creating organizational changes that enable all people to perform up to their maximum potential

Workforce demographics

Statistical profiles of adult workers

Glass ceiling

Invisible barrier blocking women and minorities from top management positions

Social categorization theory

Similarity leads to liking and attraction

Infomation/decision-making theory

Diversity leads to better task-relevant processes and decision making

Demographic faultline

A hypothetical dividing line that splits groups into demographically based subgroups

Diversity climate

Employees' aggregate perceptions about an organization's policies, practices, and procedures pertaining to diversity

Organizational culture

Shared values and beliefs that underlie a company's identity

Values

Enduring belief in a mode of conduct or end-state

Espoused values

The stated values and norms that are preferred by an organization

Sustainability

Meeting humanity's need without harming future generations

Enacted values

The values and norms that are exhibited by employees

Competing values framework

A frameworkfor categorizing organizational culture

Clan culture

A culture that has an internal focus and values flexibility rather than stability and control

Adhocracy culture

A culture that has an external focus and values flexibility

Market culture

A culture that has a strong external focus andvalues stability and control

Hierarchy culture

A culture that has an internal focus and values stability and control over flexibility

Vision

Long-term goal describing "what" an organization wants to become

Strategic plan

A long-term plan outlining actions needed to achieve desired results

Organizational socialization

Process by which employees learn an organization's values, norms, and required behaviors

Anticipatory socialization phase

Occurs before an individual joins an organizaton, and involves the information people learn about different careers, occupations, professions, and organizations

Realistic job preview

Presents both positive and negative aspects of a job

Encounter phase

Employees learn what the organization is really like and reconcile unment expectations

Onboarding

Programs aimed at helping employees integrate, assimilate, and transition to new jobs

Change and acquisition phase

Requires employees to master tasks and roles and to adjust to work group values and norms

Mentoring

Process of forming and maintaining developmental relationships between a mentor and a junior person

Diversity of developmental relationships

The variety of people in a network used for developmental assistance

Developmental relationship strength

The quality of relationships among people in a network

Culture

Beliefs and values about how a community of people should and do act

Ethnocentrism

Belief that one's native country, culture, language, and behavior are superior

Cultural intelligence

The ability to interpret ambiguous cross-cultural situations accurately

High-context cultures

Primary meaning derived from nonverbal situational cues

Low-context cultures

Primary meaning derived from writen and spoken words

Individualistic culture

Primary emphasis on personal freedom and choice

Collectivist culture

Personal goals less important than community goals and interests

Monochronic time

Preference for doing one thing at a time because time is limited, precisely segmented, and shedule driven

Polychronic time

Preference for doing more than one thing at a time because time is flexible, multidimensional, and based on relationships and situations

Proxemics

Hall's term for the study of cultural expectations about interpersonal space

Cross-cultural management

Understanding and teaching behavior patterns in different cultures

Expatriate

Anyone living or working in a foreign country

Cross-cultural training

Structured experiences to help people adjust to a new culture/country

Culture shock

Anxiety and doubt caused by an overload of new expectations and cues

Unity of command principle

Each employer should report to a single manager

Organizational chart

Boxes-and-lines illustration shwing chain of frmal authority and division of labor

Span of control

The number of people reporting directly to a given manager

Staff personnel

Provide research, advice, and recommendations to line managers

Line managers

Have authority to make organizational decisions

Closed system

A relatively self-sufficient entity

Open system

Organism that must constantly interact with its environment to survive

Learning organization

Proactively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge throughout the organization

Contingency approach to organization design

Creating an effective organization-environment fit

Mechanistic organizations

Rigid command-and-control bureaucracies

Organic organizations

Fluid and flexible networks of multitalented people

Centralized decision making

Top managers make all key decisions

Decentralized decision making

Lower-leve managers are empowered to make important decisions

Strategic constituency

Any group of people with a stake in the organizatio's operation or success

Stakeholder audit

Systematic identification of all parties likely to be affected by the organization

Organizational decline

Decrease in organization's resource base (money, customers, talent, innovations)

Organizational narcissism

Organizational tendency to deny facts, use self-aggrandizement, and feel entitled

Innovation

Creation of something new that is used by consumers

Seeds of innovation

Starting point of organizational innovation

Execution

A systematic process of discussing hows and whats, questioning tenaciously following through, and ensuring accountability

External forces for change

Originate outside the organization

Internal forces for change

Originate inside the organization

Benchmarking

Process by which a company compares its performance with that of high-performing organizations

Mission statement

Summarizes "why" an organization exists

Target elements of change

Components of an organization that may be changed

Organization development

A set of techniques or tools used to implement organizational change

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