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Artisans

skilled craftspeople who make things out of pottery, finley carved, or woven goods

Barter

a form of trade in which people exchange goods and services without the use of money

Bronze Age

a period of human culture between the Stone Age and the Iron Age, characterized by the use of weapons and implements made of bronze

City state

a city that controls much of the land around it and has its own government

Civilization

a form of culture characterized by cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping, and advanced technology

Cultural Diffusion

The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another

Cuneiform

of or relating to the tarsal bones (or other wedge-shaped bones)

Delta

A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake

Dynastic Cycle

the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties.

Dynasty

a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family

Empire

a group of diverse companies under common ownership and run as a single organization

Fertile Crescent

a geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates

Feudalism

the social system that developed in Europe in the 8th C

Hammurabi

Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC)

Harappan Civilization

another name for the indus valley civilization that arose along the indus river, possibly as early as 7000 BC; characterized by sophisticated city planning

Hieroglyphics

a system of writing using symbols or pictures

Institution

the act of starting something for the first time

Mandate of Heaven

a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source

Mesopotamia

the land between the Tigris and Euphrates

Monsoons

seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons

Oracle Bones

animal bones carved with written characters which were used for telling the future

Papyrus

a document written on papyrus

Pharaoh

the title of the ancient Egyptian kings

Polytheism

belief in multiple Gods

Pyramid

a massive memorial with a square base and four triangular sides

Scribes

professional record keepers

Specialization

the special line of work you have adopted as your career

Subcontinent

a large and distinctive landmass (as India or Greenland) that is a distinct part of some continent

Theocracy

the belief in government by divine guidance

Ziggurat

a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians

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