American Expeditionary Force
Commanded by General John J Pershing; by the summer of 1918 it assumed independent responsibility for one segment of the Western front. (The first US troops to see action were used to plug weaknesses in the french and british lines)
Four heads of state at Versailles...David Lloyd George of Great Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, and Woodrow Wilson of the USA.
League of Nations
"A general association of nations...for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike."
Consisting of about a dozen Republican senators, this party could not accept US membership in the League, no matter how the covenant was worded.
A series of unexplained bombings caused the attorney general A. Mitchell Palmer to establish a special office to gather information on radicals.
An outspoken radical who was deported after being arrested on charges of being an anarchist, socialist, or labour agitator.
Strikes; Race Riots
A series of strikes in 1919, the first of which took place in Seattle...a peaceful riot for higher wages among shipyard workers and other employees, more strikes took place in Boston; race riots and racial violence increased after the war as soldiers returned home and competition for jobs and housing grew.
Women in Industry Service (WIS)
This was a response to the widened range of female employment. led by Mark Van Kleek. It had a practical stand on improving working conditions for women including 8hr work day, equal pay for equal work, minimum wage, prohibition of night work etc..
Carrie Chapman Catt
She is the leader of the NAWSA who supported the war effort because it provided a unique opportunity for suffrage groups to shift their strategy to a national campaign for a constitutional amendment. Whom used lobbying as her strategy for campaign.
She was a young Quaker activist who led the National Women's Party whom used the strategy of agitation and picketing for her campaign.
A constitutional amendment ratified in 1920 that gave women their right to vote.
A constitutional amendment ratified in 1919, providing a national ban on alcoholic drinks. This was an effort of America participating in Prohibition.
Raymond Fosdick and the Comission on Training Camp Activities
They were military educated troops who spread the word about the dangers of contracting a venereal disease by distributing condoms to soldiers.
The Children's Bureau
Apart of the Labor Department, they focused on problems growing out of the war: the increase in employment of married women, the finding of day care for children of working mothers, and the growth of both child labor and delinquency.
A campaign by Julia C. Lathrop whom promoted public protection of expectant mothers and infants and to enforce child labor laws. Congress passed the Maternity and Infancy Act in 1921.
The disastrous influenza epidemic
in 1918-19 that nearly killed 20 million people worldwide. Much of the care for sick and dying came from the Red Cross nurses and volunteers.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
This was an agency meant to be the Civilian intelligence to as a response to the Espionage Act. It increased its overall police and surveillance machinery.
Broad law restricting criticism of America's involvement in World War I or its government, flag, military, taxes, or officials.
Schenck v. United States
Justice Holmes' claim that Congress could restrict speech if the words "are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create and clear and present danger" when Schenck was convicted for mailing pamphlets urging potential army inductees to resist conscription.
Debs v. United States
Debs was affirmed guilty for his antiwar speech in Canton, Ohio even though he had not explicitly urged the violation of the draft laws.
Abrams v. United States
The court upheld the Sedition Act of four Russian immigrants who had printed pamphlets denouncing American military intervention in the Russian Revolution. The nation's highest court thus endorsed the severe wartime restriction on free speech.
The mass movement of African Americans from the rural South to the Urban North, spurred especially by new job opportunities during World War I and the 1920's
The Fourteen Points
it appealed to antiwar factions in Austria-Hungary and Germany to convince Russia to stay in the war and to help sustain Allied Morale.
League of Nations
International organization created bt the Versailles Treaty after World War I to ensure world stability.
Germany and its World War I allies in Austria, Italy, Turkey and Bulgaria.
National Self Determination
included principles for governing international conduct, including freedom of the seas, free trade, open covenants instead of secret treaties, reduced armaments, and mediation for competing colonial claims.
War Guilt Clause
France's way to get back at Germany for the war: severe penalties for Germany; Germany should pay for ALL war debts; Germany accepts blame for the whole war
During World War I, senators William Borah of Idaho and Hiram Johnson of California, led a group of people who were against the United States joining the League of Nations. Also known as "the Battalion of Death". They were extreme isolationists and were totally against the U.S. joining the League of Nations.
Henry Cabot Lodge
Led a group of senators during Woodrow Wilson's presidency known as the "reservationists" during the 1919 debate over the League of Nations.
ended WW1, German warguilt and financial responsibilities, reperations, League of Nations,
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI. Promised "peace ladn and bread"
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
This treaty ended Russias participation in the war.
Terrorist organization dedicated to worlwide revolution
The Red Scare
a period of time in american history when the government went after "reds" (communists) and others with radical views
Attorney General who prosecutes many suspected Communists
Election of 1920
Warren G. Harding (R) vs James Cox (D) 2) issues were WW I; the post-war economy and the League of Nations 3) Harding preached "Normalcy"
Selective Service Act
required all able bodied males from the ages of 21 to 30 to regeister for the draft
a nickname for the inexperienced but fresh American soldiers during WWI