AP Human Geography Chapter 10 Vocabulary

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AP Human Gepgraphy Chapter 10 Key Terms Rubenstein Book

Agriculture

the deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain

Crop

grain or fruit gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season

Subsistence agriculture

agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family

Commercial agriculture

agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm

Prime agricultural land

the most productive farmland

Agribusiness

commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through owner ship by large corporations

Shifting cultivation

a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period

Slash-and-burn agriculture

another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris

Swidden

a patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning

Pastoral nomadism

a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals

Transhumance

the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures

Pasture

grass or other plants grown for feeding razing animals, as well as land used for grazing

Intensive subsistence agriculture

a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land

Sawah

a flooded field for growing rice

Paddy

Malay word for wet rice, commonly but incorrectly used to describe a sawah

Chaff

husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing

Thresh

to beat out grain from stalks by trampling it

Winnow

to remove chaff by allowing it to be blown away by the wind

Hull

the outer covering of a seed

Double cropping

harvesting twice a year from the same field

Crop rotation

the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil

Plantation

a large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country

Cereal grain

a grass yielding grain for food

Milkshed

the area surrounding a cit from which milk is supplied

Grain

seed of cereal grass

Winter-wheat

wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer

Spring-wheat

wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer

Reaper

a machine that cuts cereal grain standing in the field

Combine

a machine that reaps, threshes, an cleans grain while moving over a field

Ranching

a form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area

Horticulture

the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers

Truck farming

commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English world meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities

Sustainable agriculture

agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family

Ridge tillage

system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation

Desertification

degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting

Green revolution

rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers

Wet Rice

Rice planted odryland in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.

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