5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Phosphate.
- What is a hydrocarbon? Polar or non-polar?
- Why is water in the solid phase less dense? How does this support life?
- What are emergent properties of water?
- Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Amino.
- a Special abilities water takes on when combined with itself (only works with large amounts of molecules, not just a single molecule)
- b Organic molecules composed solely of Carbon and Hydrogen; Nonpolar covalent bond so they resist/repel water (ex: fat)
- c Amino (-NH₂) (acts as a base, amino acids); N single bonded to 2 H's
- d Phosphate (−OPO₃²⁻) (acid: DNA, cell membrane, ATP); P double to O, single to O, 2 O⁻
Ex: glycerol phosphate
- e Hydrogen bonds keep the molecules spread out, so they don't pack together, making them less dense.
The floating ice insulates the body of water underneath it; if ice sank, then all the bodies of water would freeze solid, making life unlivable.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
(see p. 1 slide 4 in ch. 3)
- Acids raise the concentration of H⁺ ions in an aqueous solution (decreases the pH number)
Bases lower the concentration of H⁺ ions (increases the pH number)
- Resistance to change in temperature
- Heat required to convert 1g of liquid into a gaseous state (high); Evaporative cooling is the warmest molecules of a liquid leave as a gas; allows us to sweat, or release heat so we don't die
- 1.) Structural - changes structural form; same formula, different structure
2.) Geometric - differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bond (two types: cis and trans) 3.) Enantiomers - mirror images of each other
5 True/False Questions
Be able to calculate the molar concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions from a given pH value or vice versa. → H⁺ = 10⁻⁷ and OH⁻ = 10⁻⁷ Equation: [H⁺][ OH⁻] = 10⁻¹⁴ (always = to 14)
Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Carbonyl.
Example? → Carbonyl (>CO) (ketones, aldehydes, sugars); C double bonded to O
Ex: Acetone, the simplest ketone
What are primary producers? → Buffers are molecules that resist change in pH; they either release H⁺ to lower the pH or take up H⁺ to raise the pH
What is the Universal Solvent? → WATER!
Know functional group NAMES, MOLECULAR FORMULAS, and STRUCTURES! → Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl