5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Be able to calculate the molar concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions from a given pH value or vice versa.
- Why is carbon the basic building element of life?
- What is a buffer?
- Know functional group NAMES, MOLECULAR FORMULAS, and STRUCTURES!
- Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Phosphate.
- a Because it can bond to 4 other atoms (tetravalent - 4 valence electrons)
- b Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl
- c Buffers are molecules that resist change in pH; they either release H⁺ to lower the pH or take up H⁺ to raise the pH
- d Phosphate (−OPO₃²⁻) (acid: DNA, cell membrane, ATP); P double to O, single to O, 2 O⁻
Ex: glycerol phosphate
- e Ex: pH = 12, What is the molar concentration of H⁺? OH⁻? H⁺ is 1 x 10⁻¹², OH⁻ is 1 x 10⁻².
5 Multiple choice questions
- Waters specific heat is much higher that that of other solvents; this is because of hydrogen bonding; this keeps temperatures of places near/on bodies of water consistent
- Hydrogen bonds in water hold each other together stronger than they'd bond to the air, for example. Ex: Jesus Christ lizard can walk on water because of it's surface tension; a dragonfly has non-polar exoskeleton so water beads on it
- Fix C from atmospheric CO₂ (ex: Plants w/ photosynthesis)
- 1.) Structural - changes structural form; same formula, different structure
2.) Geometric - differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bond (two types: cis and trans) 3.) Enantiomers - mirror images of each other
- Hydroxyl (polar, form hydrogen bonds, polar solvents)
−OH (may be written HO-)
Ex: Alcohols, such as Ethanol
5 True/False questions
Does form impact function? → YES!
How do acids and bases affect pH? → Buffers are molecules that resist change in pH; they either release H⁺ to lower the pH or take up H⁺ to raise the pH
What is heat of vaporization? How does it relate to evaporative cooling? What affect does it have on living organisms? → Waters specific heat is much higher that that of other solvents; this is because of hydrogen bonding; this keeps temperatures of places near/on bodies of water consistent
What is specific heat? → Resistance to change in temperature
What is the pH scale? → pH is the measurement used to quantify the H⁺ ion concentration in an aqueous (water) solution