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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. What are emergent properties of water?
  2. What is the Universal Solvent?
  3. How do acids and bases affect pH?
  4. Describe surface tension and give an example relating to living organisms.
  5. Be able to recreate hydrogen bonding in water.
  1. a
    (see p. 1 slide 4 in ch. 3)
  2. b Hydrogen bonds in water hold each other together stronger than they'd bond to the air, for example. Ex: Jesus Christ lizard can walk on water because of it's surface tension; a dragonfly has non-polar exoskeleton so water beads on it
  3. c Special abilities water takes on when combined with itself (only works with large amounts of molecules, not just a single molecule)
  4. d WATER!
  5. e Acids raise the concentration of H⁺ ions in an aqueous solution (decreases the pH number)
    Bases lower the concentration of H⁺ ions (increases the pH number)

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Solvent: Substance doing the dissolving (water)
    Solute: Substance being dissolved (sugar or salt)
    Solution: homogenous mixture (product of solvent & solute)
  2. Heat required to convert 1g of liquid into a gaseous state (high); Evaporative cooling is the warmest molecules of a liquid leave as a gas; allows us to sweat, or release heat so we don't die
  3. Resistance to change in temperature
  4. Hydroxyl (polar, form hydrogen bonds, polar solvents)
    −OH (may be written HO-)
    Ex: Alcohols, such as Ethanol
  5. Because it can bond to 4 other atoms (tetravalent - 4 valence electrons)

5 True/False Questions

  1. Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Sulfhydryl.
    Example?
    Hydroxyl (polar, form hydrogen bonds, polar solvents)
    −OH (may be written HO-)
    Ex: Alcohols, such as Ethanol

          

  2. Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Phosphate.
    Example?
    Methyl (−CH₃) (sex hormones, DNA methylation (when it gets tagged onto your DNA); C single bonded to 3 H's

    H
    |
    −C − H
    |
    H

    Ex: 5-methyl cytidine

          

  3. Do the functional groups have an impact on life? Give an example.Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl

          

  4. Describe how and why hydrogen bonds form in water.Hydrogen bonds are the bonds between two polar molecules - one with a partial positive charge and one with a partial negative charge; water is perfect for this because it has the partial negative of Oxygen and the partial positive of Hydrogen.

          

  5. Why is water in the solid phase less dense? How does this support life?Because it can bond to 4 other atoms (tetravalent - 4 valence electrons)

          

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