5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Carbonyl.
- What two properties of water do plants take advantage of, to move water against gravity, explain?
- Describe the terms: solvent, solute, and solution.
- How many valence electrons does carbon have? How many single covalent bonds can it form?
- Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Methyl.
- a Cohesion and Adhesion.
Cohesion - waters ability to stick to ITSELF (other water molecules)
Adhesion - waters ability to stick to OTHER THINGS that are POLAR
- b Methyl (−CH₃) (sex hormones, DNA methylation (when it gets tagged onto your DNA); C single bonded to 3 H's
−C − H
Ex: 5-methyl cytidine
- c Carbonyl (>CO) (ketones, aldehydes, sugars); C double bonded to O
Ex: Acetone, the simplest ketone
- d Solvent: Substance doing the dissolving (water)
Solute: Substance being dissolved (sugar or salt)
Solution: homogenous mixture (product of solvent & solute)
- e 4 and 4
5 Multiple choice questions
- 1.) Structural - changes structural form; same formula, different structure
2.) Geometric - differ in spatial arrangement due to inflexibility of double bond (two types: cis and trans) 3.) Enantiomers - mirror images of each other
- Hydrogen bonds are the bonds between two polar molecules - one with a partial positive charge and one with a partial negative charge; water is perfect for this because it has the partial negative of Oxygen and the partial positive of Hydrogen.
- H⁺ = 10⁻⁷ and OH⁻ = 10⁻⁷ Equation: [H⁺][ OH⁻] = 10⁻¹⁴ (always = to 14)
- Hydrophilic - attracted to water; polar or ionic; has charge
Hydrophobic - repels water; nonpolar; no charge
- Hydrogen bonds in water hold each other together stronger than they'd bond to the air, for example. Ex: Jesus Christ lizard can walk on water because of it's surface tension; a dragonfly has non-polar exoskeleton so water beads on it
5 True/False questions
Know functional group NAMES, MOLECULAR FORMULAS, and STRUCTURES! → Yes. Ex: tiny tag from a functional group determines whether we are males or females
Be able to calculate the molar concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions from a given pH value or vice versa. → Ex: pH = 12, What is the molar concentration of H⁺? OH⁻? H⁺ is 1 x 10⁻¹², OH⁻ is 1 x 10⁻².
Organic molecules must always contain what? → Carbon and Hydrogen
What is specific heat? → pH is the measurement used to quantify the H⁺ ion concentration in an aqueous (water) solution
What are functional groups? Names? → Small organic molecules with great effects:
Hydroxyl, Carbonyl, Carboxyl, Amino, Sulfhydryl, Phosphate, and Methyl