Do the functional groups have an impact on life? Give an example.
Be able to calculate the molar concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions from a given pH value or vice versa.
aYes. Ex: tiny tag from a functional group determines whether we are males or females
bBuffers are molecules that resist change in pH; they either release H⁺ to lower the pH or take up H⁺ to raise the pH
dEx: pH = 12, What is the molar concentration of H⁺? OH⁻? H⁺ is 1 x 10⁻¹², OH⁻ is 1 x 10⁻².
5 Multiple Choice Questions
Carbonyl (>CO) (ketones, aldehydes, sugars); C double bonded to O
Ex: Acetone, the simplest ketone
Fix C from atmospheric CO₂ (ex: Plants w/ photosynthesis)
Hydrophilic - attracted to water; polar or ionic; has charge
Hydrophobic - repels water; nonpolar; no charge
Because it can bond to 4 other atoms (tetravalent - 4 valence electrons)
4 and 4
5 True/False Questions
What is a hydrocarbon? Polar or non-polar? → Organic molecules composed solely of Carbon and Hydrogen; Nonpolar covalent bond so they resist/repel water (ex: fat)
Draw functional group structure and give molecular formula for: Sulfhydryl.
Example? → Sulfhydryl (−SH or HS−) (protein cross-linking, stabilizes structure)
Ex: Covalent bonding w/ other sulfhydryls (disulfide bridge)
What is the pH scale? → pH is the measurement used to quantify the H⁺ ion concentration in an aqueous (water) solution
What are the molar concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in one liter of pure water? → H⁺ = 10⁻⁷ and OH⁻ = 10⁻⁷ Equation: [H⁺][ OH⁻] = 10⁻¹⁴ (always = to 14)
Know functional group NAMES, MOLECULAR FORMULAS, and STRUCTURES! → Yes. Ex: tiny tag from a functional group determines whether we are males or females