AP Psychology, Chapter 12 study guide questions

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energizes and directs behavior

Motivation is best understood as a state that:

needs are physiological states; drives are psychological states

Which of the following is a difference between a drive and a need?

because some motivated behaviors do not seem to be based on physiological needs, they cannot be explained in terms of drive reduction

One problem with the idea of motivation as drive reduction is that:

atypical prenatal hormones

Some scientific evidence makes a preliminary link between homosexuality and:

lower blood sugar and trigger hunger

Increases in insulin will:

begin eating

Electrical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus will cause an animal to:

protected our ancestors from potentially toxic substances

The text suggests that a neophobia for unfamiliar tastes:

leptin

I am a protein produced by fat cells and monitored by the hypothalamus. When in abundance, I cause the brain to increase metabolism. What am I?

biological

Instinct theory and drive-reduction theory both emphasize__________factors in motivation.

excitement; plateau; orgasm; resolution

The correct order of the stages of Masters and Johnson's sexual response cycle is:

instincts

Few human behaviors are rigidly patterned enough to qualify as:

men's sexual orientation is potentially more fluid and changeable than women's

Which of the following is not true regarding sexual orientation?

the subjects became obsessed with food

In his study of men on a semistarvation diet, Keys found that:

satisfying relationships

When asked what makes life meaningful, most people first mention:

binging and purging

Bulimia nervosa involves:

reduced testosterone and sexual interest

Castration of male rats results in:

behavior therapy

Which of the following has been found to be most effective in treating sexual disorders?

people's attitudes, values, and morals cannot be separated from the biological aspects of sexuality

It has been said that the body's major sex organ is the brain. With regard to sex education:

sexual behavior is enormously varied

Kinsey's studies of sexual behavior showed that:

deal with employees according to their individual motives

To increase employee productivity, industrial-organizational psychologists advise managers to:

estrogen

hormone secreted more by females than by males

homeostasis

the body's tendency to maintain a balanced internal state

incentive

environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

sexual orientation

a person's attraction to members of a particular sex

organizational psychology

examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity

personnel psychology

focuses on employee selection and replacement

drive

an aroused state arising from some physiological need

need

a state of deprivation

set point

the body's weight-maintenance setting

ghrelin

hormone secreted by an empty stomach

orexin

hunger-triggering hormone secreted by the hypothalamus

anterior cingulate cortex

One research study found that having an e-mail go unanswered, and other forms of ostracism, elicit increased activity in the brain's:

the tendency to maintain a steady internal state

Homeostasis refers to:

the tendency of most interviewers to rely on unstructured rather than structured interviews

Which of the following was not identified as a contributing factor in the interviewer illusion?

western europe

Of the following parts of the world, teen intercourse rates are highest in:

metabolic factors

Although the cause of eating disorders is still unknown, proposed explanations focus on all the following except:

ventromedial hypothalamus

The brain area that when stimulated suppresses eating is the:

2; 5

Exposure of a fetus to the hormones typical of females between______and_______months after conception may predispose the developing human to become attracted to males.

research indicates that sexual orientation may be at least partly physiological

Which of the following statements concerning homosexuality is true?

countries such as India, where thinness is not idealized

Women in____rate their body ideals closet to their actual shape.

the most basic motives are based on physiological needs, needs are satisfied in a specific order, and the highest motives relate to self-actualization

According to Maslow's theory:

monkeys will work puzzles even if not given a food reward

Which of the following is inconsistent with the drive-reduction theory of motivation?

genetic factors may influence susceptibility, cultural pressures for thinness strongly influence teenage girls, and family background is a significant factor

Which of the following is true concerning eating disorders?

a person's enduring sexual attraction toward members of a particular gender

Sexual orientation refers to:

the desire to gain approval

Which of the following is not an aspect of Murray's definition of achievement motivation?

internal physiological factors, external and imagined stimuli, and cultural expectations

Hunger and sexual motivation are alike in that both are influenced by:

the resolution phase

According to Masters and Johnson, the sexual response of males is most likely to differ from that of females during:

loss of hunger; overeating

In animals, destruction of the lateral hypothalamus results in______, whereas destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus results in______.

halo error

Because Alethea is very friendly and likeable, her supervisor gives her a positive rating on her overall job performance. By generalizing from these specific traits to a biased overall evaluation, Alethea's supervisor has committed a:

physiological; safety; belongingness and love; esteem; self-fulfillment

Beginning with the most basic needs, which of the following represents the correct sequence of needs in the hierarchy described by Maslow?

amygdala

While viewing erotica, men and women differ in the activity levels of which brain area?

organizational psychologist

Dr. Iverson conducts research on how management styles influence worker motivation. He would most accurately be described as a(n):

has a clear vision of leadership goals, is able to communicate her goals clearly and simply, and is able to inspire others

Rosa has been described as a "leader with a lot of charisma." An organizational psychologist would say that this means she:

drive-reduction theory

Mary loves hang-gliding. It would be most difficult to explain Mary's behavior according to:

maslow

For two weeks, Orlando has been on a hunger strike in order to protest his country's involvement in what he percieves as an immoral war. Orlando's willingness to starve himself in order to make a political statement conflicts with the theory of motivation advanced by:

have a history of childhood obesity

Kathy has been undergoing treatment for bulimia. There is an above-average probability that one or more members of Kathy's family:

thrill-seeking

Which of the following was not identified as a contributing factor in the high rate of unprotected sex among adolescents?

does not explain human behaviors; it simply names them

One shortcoming of the instinct theory of motivation is that it:

weight significantly and noticeably outside normal ranges

Which of the following is not typical of both anorexia and bulimia?

feeling hungry at the sight of an appetizing food

Which of the following is not an example of homeostasis?

ventromedial hypothalamus; lateral hypothalamus

Two rats have escaped from their cages in the neurophysiology lab. The technician needs your help in returning them to their proper cages. One rat is grossly overweight; the other is severely underweight. You confidently state that the overweight rat goes in the "____-destruction" cage, while the underweight rat goes in the "____-destruction" cage.

Montel, who often becomes so immersed in his writing that he loses all sense of self and time

Which of the following individuals would be characterized as experiencing flow?

he will display a preference for sweet tastes

Ali's parents have tried hard to minimize their son's exposure to sweet, fattening foods. If Ali has the occasion to taste sweet foods in the future, which of the following is likely?

men who have older brothers are somewhat more likely to be gay

Summarizing his presentation on the orgins of homosexuality, Dennis explains that the "fraternal birth-order effect" refers to the fact that:

"because bonding with others increased our ancestors' success at reproduction and survival, it became part of our biological nature"

Summarizing her report on the need to belong, Rolanda states that:

Jennifer, a teenage girl who has a poor self-image and a fear of not being able to live up to her parents' high standards

Of the following individuals, who might be most prone to developing an eating disorder?

her prediet weight was near her body's set point

Lucille has been sticking to a strict diet but can't seem to lose weight. What is the most likely explanation for her difficulty?

carbohydrates boost levels of serotonin, which has a calming effect

Randy, who has been under a lot of stress lately, has intense cravings for sugary junk foods, which tend to make him feel more relaxed. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for his craving?

Ron, who regularly volunteers his time in community service

Which of the following teens is most likely to delay the initiation of sex?

preparation and daily discipline

In order to predict future excellence in a young scholar, athlete, or artist, one would best examine the individual's:

social; task

For as long as she has been the plant manager, Juanita has welcomed input from employees and has delegated authority. Bill manages his department, with a more authoritarian, iron-fisted approach. Juanita's style is one of_____leadership, whereas Bill's is one of _____leadership.

self-actualization needs

In Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs, living up to one's potential and striving for personal fufillment are referred to as:

if permitted to choose their own pieces of music, they will select moderately difficult pieces that they can master if they practice conscientiously

Which of the following is most likely to characterize the behavior of students who have high achievement motivation and are intrinsically motivated to play a musical instrument?

eat a snack

An individual experiencing a low blood-glucose level would be best advised to do which of the following?

the injection of heroin by an addict to avoid withdrawal symptoms

Drive reduction as a motivational concept is best exemplified by which of the following?

bulimia nervosa

In an attempt to lose some of the weight she has gained from binge eating, Melissa tries to compensate by using laxatives and exercising until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:

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