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General Medical Notes

Capnometry

The use of a capnometer, a device that measures the amount of expired carbon dixoide.

CVP Line

(central venous pressure line) a venous line which is placed into the subclavian vein with the tip of the catheter in the SVC just superior to the right atrium of the heart. The pressure within the SVC reflects the pressure under which the blood is returned to the right atrium. If increased, this can indicate CHF. If decreased, this indicates hemorrhage or fluid loss.

Dysrhythmias

Distrubances in conduction caused by electrical impulses that do not originate from the SA node.

Electrocardiography

diagnostic procedure consisting of recording the activity of the heart electronically with a cardiograph (and producing a cardiogram)

Electroencephalogram

a graphical record of electrical activity of the brain

Epidural

regional anesthesia resulting from injection of an anesthetic into the epidural space of the spinal cord

Exsanguination

Loss of blood to the point where life can no longer be sustained

intrathecally

How is Amphotericin B administered for fungal meningitis?

laryngospasm

a closure of the larynx that blocks the passage of air to the lungs

local anesthesia

loss of sensation in a small area of the body (as when a local anesthetic is injected for a tooth extraction)

Precordial

pertaining to the area on the anterior surface of the body overlying the heart

Pulse oximetry

a noninvasive method of measuring oxygen in the blood by using a device that attaches to the fingertip

PVC

irregularity of cardiac rhythm

Regional anesthesia

loss of sensation in a region of the body produced by application of an anesthetic agent to all the nerves supplying that region (as when an epidural anesthetic is administered to the pelvic region during childbirth)

Tachycardia

abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)

vasoconstrictor

a drug that causes narrowing of the blood vessels, decreasing blood flow

vasodilation

dilation of blood vessels (especially the arteries)

epinephrine

hormone from renial medulla that raises blood pressure, a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin)

circumoral

around the mouth

Erythemia

redness of the skin

PABA

a metabolic acid found in yeast and liver cells

Urticaria

an itchy skin eruption characterized by weals with pale interiors and well-defined red margins

aminoesters

Local anesthetics can metabolize to ___ which cause allergies due to metabolism in para-aminobenzoic acid.

aminoamides

lidocaine, bupivicaine

amnestic

of or relating to or caused by amnesia

anesthesia

loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness

depolarization

a loss of polarity or polarization

emergence phase

Starts as the patient begins to awake from the altered state induced by the anesthesia and usually ends when the patient is ready to leave the OR.

emulsion

a light-sensitive coating on paper or film

ET

endotracheal tube

extubation

Removal of endotracheal tube

fasciculation

rapid continuous twitching of resting muscle without movement of limb

Induction phase

Begins with administration of the anesthetic agent and continues until the patient is ready for the incision.

intubation

the insertion of a cannula or tube into a hollow body organ

lacrimation

secretion of tears, esp. in excess

LMA

Laryngeal mask airway

Maintenance phase

surgical intervention takes place during this phase; maintenance of homeostatic function of all vital organs critical to successful anesthetic delivery and surgical outcome

Minimum alveolar concentration

the minimum concentration of an inhalation anesthetic in the alveolus that prevents 50% of patients from responding to a painful stimulus.

Nebulizer

pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which is then inhaled by the patient via a face mask or mouthpiece

Opioid

Opioids provide an analgesic effect by decreasing the perception of pain and increase pain tolerance.

PACU

post anesthesia care unit

Preinduction phase

begins at the time of premedication & ends when induction of anesthesia begins

RSI

repetitive stress injuries

Repolarizaiton

the sodium channels close and the sodium potassium pumps begin to work again

attraction

a characteristic that provides pleasure and attracts

fasciculation

muscular twitching of contiguous groups of muscle fibers

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