Why do lawns need to be watered frequently in dry regions?
They have shallow root systems.
Both root system and shoot system in plants are involved in common functions as well as distinct functions. Which of the following defines a function common to both roots and shoots?
harvesting resources from the environment
Primary growth of roots and shoots is due to cell division in which of the following?
If you were doing a gene expression study on the gene involved in carbohydrate storage, you would use tissues from the _____.
Primary plant body consists of several tissue systems. Which answer provides the complete list of tissue systems that form the primary body in plants?
dermal tissues, ground tissues, and vascular tissues
The function of sieve tube elements is to _____.
transport sugars up and down
what is included in primary growth?
increases exposure to light
occurs in plants that live only one year
what is included in secondary growth?
growth in thickness
increases vasular flow
provides structural support
what is included in both primary and secondary growth?
occurs in plants that live many years
secondary growth NEVER occurs in _____.
_____ provides cells for secondary growth.
Vascular cambium forms wood toward the stem's _____ and secondary phloem toward the stem's _____.
center ... surface
What is the function of cork?
insulation and waterproofing
How is the supply of vascular cambium maintained?
by the division of its cells
What structure serves to protect the tree?
Phenotypic plasticity is more important in _____.
One would predict that a plant in a tropical rainforest (where rain is plentiful and plant density is high) would have _____.
a relatively shallow root system and a large shoot system
What part of the root is responsible for water and nutrient absorption?
zone of cellular maturation
What is true about plant meristematic cells?
They are undifferentiated cells that produce new cells.
In 2005, a spot 1 centimeter from the center of a woody stem is in the bark. In what tissue will the same spot (1 cm from the center) be in 2050?
What would the graph look like for the following null hypothesis? There is no relationship between offspring quality and egg size.
a horizontal line at some average survival value
The study on female side-blotched lizards showed a trade-off between _____.
egg size and egg number
In contrast to acclimatization, adaptation involves _____.
a change in allele frequency over many generation
Which of these is NOT one of the four major categories of tissue?
Which type of connective tissue would you predict to be the most stiff?
supporting connective tissue
Why does epithelial tissue have tightly packed layers of cells?
to better protect underlying tissues
Bone is an example of _____.
supporting connective tissue
Which of the following best describes smooth muscle cell structure and control?
Which of the following best describes a cell in the inner lining of the stomach (in contact with swallowed food)?
Which of the following has the highest surface area/volume ratio?
Which do you predict would have the largest difference in mass-specific basal metabolic rate?
dog and cat
lion and cat
cat and mouse
lion and dog
cat and mouse
When comparing a mouse to an elephant, the mouse has a _____ surface area to volume ratio and a _____ mass-specific basal metabolic rate.
Which term describes a mechanism by which the internal conditions of an organism are kept at set values without regard to the external conditions?
True or false? Organisms must maintain homeostasis because optimal enzyme activity is achieved within a very narrow range of conditions.
Which component of a homeostatic system sends instructions based on sensory information?
Which component of a homeostatic system perceives changes in some parameter of the environment?
Which of the following actions acts to warm a homeothermic body?
A homeostatic set point is best described as _____.
a normal or target value for a controlled variable
An ectothermic organism would have the advantage over an endothermic organism when _____.
food is scarce year round
The best definition of an endotherm is an animal that _____.
produces adequate heat to warm its own tissues
You inject an animal with a drug that loosens the tight junctions between epithelial cells. What do you predict will immediately occur?
Excess water will enter into the organism.
Why would one predict that if King Kong existed he would be hairless?
Due to the amount of heat his body would generate, the presence of hair would likely overheat him.
Your professor announces he has discovered a new species of bird that feeds mostly on worms and soft-bodied insects picked up from the ground and off of leaves. Based on this information, what shape of beak would you predict for this bird?
long and narrow like tweezers
What would happen if this cell were moved from pure water to a seawater solution?
Water would move out of the cell.
Which has the most negative solute potential?
Salt decreases solute potential. Salty soil has the highest solute concentrations.
What defines the process known as "transpiration" in plants?
Water is lost into the environment through stomata.
Water potential (the potential energy of water) at a given location is determined by _____.
the pressure on water and amount of solutes dissolved in it
How do plants that are adapted to dry and salty soils normally tolerate the low water potential in the environment?
by lowering the solute potential inside their cells
In roots the _____ forces water and solutes to pass through the plasma membranes of _____ cells before entering the _____.
Casparian strip ... endodermis ... xylem
_____ provide(s) the major force for the movement of water and solutes from roots to leaves.
_____ bonds are responsible for the cohesion of water molecules.
_____ cells are the cells that regulate the opening and closing of stomata, thus playing a role in regulating transpiration.
What might occur if a mutation reduced the water-repellant quality of suberin?
The apoplastic route of water travel would be allowed.
Which of the following has the highest water potential value on average?
Which of the following is generated entirely by asymmetrical hydrogen bonding between water molecules?
When water moves from soil into the vascular tissues inside the root, it can take three possible pathways. Of these, the apoplastic path is _____.
along cell walls and air spaces
When would you observe a positive root pressure?
The transport of a water column up a very tall tree can be explained by _____.
cohesive and adhesive forces of water column under negative pressure
Some plants growing in arid climates have small leaves and thick waxy cuticles on the upper epidermis. This is an adaptation for _____.
decreasing the water loss from leaves
Which tissue acts as a filter on the water absorbed by root hairs?
True or false? Root pressure can move water a long distance up the xylem because of the higher water potential of the xylem in comparison to the water potential in the surrounding cells.
Which term describes an area where sugars are used or stored?
What characterizes the rates of photosynthesis and transport in a plant on a dry cloudy day?
Both the photosynthesis and transpiration rates are low.
True or false? The rate of sugar transport in a plant depends on the rate of photosynthesis, the rate of transpiration, and the difference in turgor pressure between the source and the sink.
According to the pressure-flow hypothesis, which direction are sucrose and water flowing when roots are sources and leaves are sinks?
Water and sucrose flow up the stem.
The water potential of phloem sap is lowest in which of the following?
near leaves at the start of spring
Which of the following plant organs may act as a source for translocation of sugars inside a plant?
According to the pressure flow hypothesis, what mechanism causes the movement of phloem sap from sources to sink tissues?
pressure potential difference between source and sink
Loading of sugars to the phloem sieve tube elements at the source tissues happens by _____.
active and passive transport across the plasma membrane
Why does water move up a tree via a pressure gradient and not a solute gradient?
because xylem cells are dead at maturity
Why is it important that the xylem is adjacent to the phloem?
Pressure from xylem water moves nutrients through the phloem.
How does a selectively permeable membrane affect diffusion?
Only some molecules move from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.
Which of the following is true regarding marine fish?
They actively transport ions across their gills into the seawater.
Movement of water across a membrane is best described as _____.
Which of these membrane proteins is involved in secondary active transport?
Osmoregulation of all marine fishes (cartilaginous and bony) is accomplished primarily with the use of _____.
Na+/K+ ATPase pumps
Why would spiracles be located on the underside of a desert grasshopper?
This reduces water loss via evaporation.
Why is uric acid advantageous for nitrogenous waste excretion?
Uric acid is insoluble in water.
An insect acclimated to a warm, dry environment would be expected to show which of the following?
Fish have what type of nitrogenous waste?
Osmosis of water into the lumen of the Malpighian tubules in terrestrial insects occurs because of the concentration gradient established by the active transport of _____ into the lumen.
Under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), _____ is produced.
more concentrated urine
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) makes the _____ permeable to water.
The movement of substances out of the glomerulus and into Bowman's capsule is referred to as _____.
The movement of substances from the blood into the proximal tubule is known as _____.
As filtrate moves down the loop of Henle, the surrounding interstitial fluid becomes _____ concentrated than the filtrate, so _____ leaves the filtrate.
The most abundant solute in urine is _____.
urea (and other nitrogenous wastes)
Glucose is removed from filtrate by _____.
As blood flows through the glomerulus, what is filtered out?
electrolytes and wastes
Why does drinking caffeinated soda make one need to urinate more frequently?
Caffeine inhibits sodium ion reabsorption in the proximal tubule.
If alcohol inhibits ADH release, what is predicted?
large amounts of dilute urine
A drug that inhibits chloride pumping out of the ascending limb of Loop of Henle would result in _____.
less water removed from the descending limb
Which of the following drains urine from the kidneys to the bladder?
The descending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to _____, and the thick portion of the ascending limb is permeable to _____.
water; Na+ and Cl-
Which of the following is true regarding hormonal regulation of urine volume and composition?
Antidiuretic hormone causes a reduction in urine volume.
Why might a desert animal expend more energy in urine production than an aquatic one?
Prevention of water loss requires costly ion reabsorption.
What is the advantage of a longer Loop of Henle?
better water reabsorption
Paramecia live in pond water (a hypotonic environment). They have a structural feature, a contractile vacuole, that enables them to osmoregulate. If you observed paramecia in the following solutions, at which sucrose concentration would you expect the contractile vacuole to be most active?
0.0 mM sucrose
Calculate the partial pressure of oxygen at an atmospheric pressure of 500 mmHg.
Where would oxygen partial pressure be highest?
Which of the following aquatic habitats has the highest oxygen content per unit area?
a shallow river fed by a waterfall
Which of the following is a disadvantage of external gills?
vulnerable to predation
Voice sounds are produced by the _____.
The primary functions of the _____ are to warm, filter, and humidify air.
Which feature is common to gills, lungs, and tracheae?
large surface area
Air moves in and out of the tracheal system of an exercising insect by _____.
ventilation of the tracheae due to contraction of muscles around the tracheae
Which of the following is an accurate comparison of vertebrate lungs?
Mammals have more alveolar surface area than frogs.
Most carbon dioxide is carried from the body tissues to the lungs _____.
as bicarbonate ions (HCO3 -)
By picking up hydrogen ions, hemoglobin prevents the blood from becoming too _____.
In the blood most of the oxygen that will be used in cellular respiration is carried from the lungs to the body tissues _____.
combined with hemoglobin
A shift to the right of the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve represents _____.
increased oxygen delivery to a tissue
The majority of carbon dioxide is carried in blood as _____.
bicarbonate dissolved in plasma
Blood returns to the heart via the _____.
From the pulmonary veins, blood flows to the _____.
From the anterior vena cava, blood flows to the _____.
From the capillaries of the abdominal organs and hind limbs, blood flows to the _____.
posterior vena cava
Which of the following does NOT correctly represent blood flow through the heart?
from the right ventricle to the left ventricle
A blood vessel that takes blood to the heart is a(n) _____.
What is the function of a circulatory system?
It brings a transport liquid into close contact with all cells in the body.
Why do the circulatory systems of land vertebrates have separate circuits to the lungs and to the rest of the body?
The large decrease in blood pressure as blood moves through the lungs may prevent efficient circulation through the rest of the body.
True or false? The circulatory systems of land-dwelling vertebrates are composed of two pumping circuits: the systemic circulation, which is a lower-pressure circuit to the lung, and the pulmonary circulation, which is a higher-pressure circuit to the rest of the body.
What is the function of the left ventricle?
It pumps oxygenated blood around the body via the systemic circulation.
Which of the following statements about blood circulation in the body is true?
Valves prevent the backflow of blood into the atria and ventricles.
Which event occurs first during diastole?
The atria and ventricles are relaxed, and blood flows into the atria.
Which event of the cardiac cycle occurs when systolic blood pressure is measured?
The ventricles contract, carrying blood into the aorta, and blood flows into the relaxed atria.
Which of the following animals has a three-chambered heart?
Electrical impulses that trigger contraction of cardiac muscle cells originate in the _____.
Which of the following occurs in response to a drop in blood pressure?
Why are there no endothermic water-breathing animals?
Oxygen is more difficult to extract from water than from air.
Which of the following is most likely to be found in a terrestrial animal with high activity rates?
a four-chambered heart
If other factors are equal, which of the following environments would have the highest level of dissolved oxygen?
cool freshwater at low elevation
The main difference between respiration in terrestrial insects and in terrestrial vertebrates is that _____.
insects rely on their tracheal system to deliver oxygen in air to their tissues, whereas terrestrial vertebrates rely on their lungs to deliver oxygen to their tissues through the blood in their circulatory system
In a cross section through an artery and vein running parallel in your leg, which would be the artery?
the vessel with more muscle tissue in the wall