Most joints of the foot are classified as?
Synovial joints share what features? (4)
1. Hyaline cartilage covers articular surfaces
2. Articular capsule encloses the joint
3. Synovial membrane lines the capsule & covers all structures within capsule except for articular cartilage
4. Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid
1. Ligaments attached to tibia & a tarsal bone
2. Ligaments attached to fibula & a tarsal bone
3. Ligaments attached to navicular & any other bone
4. (Except navicular) Ligaments attached to 2 tarsal bones are named?
1. tarsal bone is named last (tibionavicular)
2. tarsal bone named first (calcaneofibular)
3. navicular is named last (calcaneonavicular, cuboideonavicular, cuneonavicular)
4. more distal bone named last (calcaneocuboid)
The ankle joint is also known as ____ joint.
The talus articulates w/ 2 bones of the leg and it is a ___ or ____ type of synovial joint.
hinge or ginglymus type
The trochlea of the talus fits into a socket formed by?
3. anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament
4. inferior transverse ligament
There are (3) ligaments associated w/ distal tibiofibular joint:
1. interosseous tibiofibular ligament
2. anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament
3. posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament
(T/F) The interosseous tibiofibular ligament (lowermost portion of interosseous membrane between tibia & fibula) is part of the ankle joint.
FALSE -not part of the ankle joint
The anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament, ___ in shape, extends from the anterior border of the __ __ of the tibia to the anterior border of the shaft of the ___ and the ___ ____.
This ligament forms what portion of the socket for the talus?
fibular notch of the tibia
shaft of the fibular & lateral malleolus
The posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament, ___ in shape, extends from the ___ ___ of the fibular notch of the tibia to the upper part of the ___ ___ ___.
This ligament has (#) of portions.
posterior border of fibular notch
lateral malleolar facet
2 - superficial & deep
The deep portion of posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (inferiorly as well as deep) is known as the ?
This ligament contains elastic fibers & fibrocartilage & helps form the ?
inferior transverse ligament
What ligaments are associated with the proximal tibiofibular joint?
the anterior & posterior superior tibiofibular ligaments
What (3) surfaces of the body of talus articulate at ankle joint?
The dorsal surface of body of talus articulates with __ surface of tibia, known as the ___ ___.
dorsal, medial & lateral
The medial surface of body of talus articulates with ___ surface of the ___ malleolus.
The articular surfaces of both have what shape facets?
lateral surface of medial malleolus (tibia)
comma-shaped or pear shaped facets
The lateral surface of body of talus articulates with ___ surface of the ___ malleolus.
The articular surfaces of both have what shape facets?
medial surface of lateral malleolus (fibula)
The articular or fibrous capsule of the ankle joint is thin in what directions?
In what directions is it thickened by collateral ligaments?
thin- anteriorly & posteriorly
thickened-Medially & laterally (by medial & lateral collateral ligaments, respectively)
In what direction is the capsule of the ankle joint broad as well as thin & stretches to the neck of talus?
In what direction does the capsule consist mainly of transverse fibers, some when blend w/ inferior transverse ligament?
The __ ___ is the medial collateral ligament of the ankle joint.
The deltoid ligament is very strong triangular (deltoid-shaped) band containing fibers which attach to the ___ superiorly & fan out inferiorly to attach to the ___, ___ and ___.
inferiorly to talus, calcaneus & navicular
The deltoid ligament is composed of (4) ligaments.
1. anterior tibiotalar
2. posterior tibiotalar
Of the 4 ligaments (of deltoid ligament) which lie deep and which are superfical?
deep- anterior tibiotalar
superficial- posterior tibiotalar, tibiocalcaneal, tibionavicular
Superiorly, deltoid ligament attaches to what?
Inferiorly, the fibers?
to the anterior surface (colliculus), apex & posterior surface (colliculus) of medial malleolus
inferiorly, the fibers fan out
The anterior tibiotalar ligament attaches to?
The posterior tibiotalar ligament attaches to? And helps to form what?
The tibiocalcaneal ligament attaches to?
The tibionavicular ligament attaches to? Blends with? Lies superficial to?
medial surface of talus
medial tubercle on posterior surface of talus; assists in forming groove for tendon of flexor hallucis longus
sustentaculum tali inferiorly
tuberosity of navicular; blends w/ spring ligament; lies superficial to anterior tibiotalar ligament
Which ligament of the deltoid ligament is the strongest?
Tendons of (2) muscles lie superficial to the deltoid ligament.
flexor digitorum longus
Unlike the medial collateral ligament, which is called the ___ ligament, the lateral collateral ligament of the ankle joint has no other name.
The lateral collateral ligament is a general term for (3) ligaments.
1. calcaneofibular ligament
2. anterior talofibular
3. posterior talofibular
The calcaneofibular ligament is a (short/long) cord-like ligament.
It attaches at the ___ of ___ ___ extending to an unnamed tubercle on the lateral surface of ___.
The ligament is covered by tendons of ?
apex of lateral malleolus
peroneus longus and peroneus brevis
The anterior talofibular ligament blends with what?
It is attached to ___ ___ of the ___ ___ and the ___ of the talus.
It overhangs what?
fibrous capsule of ankle joint
anterior margin of lateral malleolus; neck of talus
The posterior talofibular ligament's fibers course almost horizontally between __ ___ fossa & ___ __ of the ___ surface of the talus.
It assists in forming the groove for what tendon?
lateral malleolar fossa; lateral tubercle of posterior surface of the talus
flexor hallucis longus
Of the ligaments of the lateral collateral ligament, which is the shortest?
Most commonly injured w/ an inversion-type sprained ankle?
The fibulotalocalcaneal ligament is located at what aspect of the ankle joint?
(T/F) This ligament is not classified as part of the lateral collateral ligament of the ankle.
Superiorly, fibulotalocalcaneal ligament is attached along the ___ ___ of the ___ ___ where it blends w/ __ __ ligament.
Near its superior attachment this ligament is closely related to the fibrous sheath around the tendons of what?
posterior border of lateral malleolus; posterior tibiofibular ligament
peroneus longus & peroneus brevis
Inferiorly, fibulotalocalcaneal ligament divides into (#) laminae.
The superomedial (talar) lamina attaches to the ___ ___ of the __ __ of talus.
It helps to form the fibrous tunnel for what tendon?
The inferolateral (calcaneal) lamina attaches to the ___ third of ___ surface of calcaneus.
Usually, this inferior attachment is confined to ___ surface of calcaneus. However, it may also attach to ___ surface of calcaneus where it blends with what?
lateral tubercle of posterior process of talus
flexor hallucis longus tendon
posterior third of dorsal surface of calcaneus
The fibulotalocalcaneal ligament varies:
% well defined
% poorly defined
% replaced by deep fascia
60% well defined
20% poorly defined
20% replaced by deep fascia