first Greek state; was a fortified site in Greece that was first discovered by the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann; was one of a number of centers in an early Greek civilization that flourished between 1600 and 1100 B.C.
part of the Indo-European family of peoples who spread from their original location into southern and western Europe, India, and Iran. One group of these people managed to gain control of the Greek mainland and form a civilization
Greek Dark Age
period after the fall of the Mycenaeans, poverty, disruption, backwardness, literacy was a casualty, religious cults become popular. Some Greeks sail to Crete, Asia Minor, period of economic hardship
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Fall of Troy
Greeks built a large, hollow horse in which they waited inside. The Trojans thought the horse was a peace gift, and brought it into the city. However, when night fell the Greeks climbed out and burned the city to the ground.
a large hill in ancient Greece where city residents sought shelter and safety in times of war and met to discuss community affairs
Greek city-state that was ruled by an oligarchy, focused on military, used slaves for agriculture, discouraged the arts
One of the five men elected each year in ancient Sparta who were responsible for the education of youth and the conduct of all citizens
Council of Elders
composed of the two kings and 28 citizens over the age of 60; decided on the issues that would be presented to an assembly made up of male citizens
Powerful city in Ancient Greece that was a leader in arts, sciences, philosophy, democracy and architecture.
a 1,000 square mile promontory in southeast central Greece that formed the territory of the Athenian city-state; rugged terrain that yielded high-quality marble and potter's clay as well as silver and lead
Athenian reformer of the 6th century; established laws that eased the burden of debt on farmers, forbade enslavement for debt
An Athenian ruler who came to power around 500 B.C.E., an introduces further reforms that advanced democracy. He developed ten social classes based on where someone lived rather than their wealth. Established the Council of 500 and a policy where all citizens could submit laws for review by the council.
Council of Five Hundred
this body was created by Cleisthenes. It proposed laws and counseled the assembly. Council members were chosen by lot, or at random. (Athens)
This term refers to the time period of Greek History from 500 to 338 B.C. In 338 B.C. Greece was conquered by King Philip II, who was a Macedonian King. A time when Greek culture and ideas flourished.
important leader and warrior in Athens during the Golden Age who strengthened democracy, made it possible for poor people to be in the government of Athens, and said there should be equal justice for all people.
Golden Age of Greece
began when the Persian Wars ended and ended when Pericles died. A period when the city-states of Greece achieved a high level of culture and political stability: advances in science, math philosiphy, art, theatre, architecture, politics, where Greek civilization was at it's highest
A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives
Last great battle of the Peloponnesian War where the Athenian fleet was destroyed in 405 B.C.
three play series based on the family of Agamemnon, the mycenean king who commanded the greeks at troy-written by Aeschylus
Son of Atreus, brother of Menelaus, husband of Clytemnestra, and king of Mycenae. Elected commander in chief of the Greeks in the Trojan War. When war was over, he sailed home where he was murdered by Aegisthus and Clytemnestra. Odysseus speaks to his spirit in Hades.
Athenian philosopher (ca. 470-399 B.C.E.) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He made enemies in government by revealing the ignorance of others. (133)
one of Socrates' students; was considered by many to be the GREATEST philosopher of western civilization. He explained his ideas about government in a work entitled The Republic. In his ideal state, the people were divided into three different groups.
Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
the ancient kingdom of Philip II and Alexander the Great in the southeastern Balkans that is now divided among modern Macedonia and Greece and Bulgaria
the age of Alexander the Great; period when the Greek language and ideas were carried to the non-Greek world
Kingdoms established by Alexander and his successors, setting up Greek monarchs that controlled the area from Greece to Afghanistan.
City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization
Founded by Romulus and Remus; was ruled by 7 kings; City was named after Romulus and he was the king; The government consisted of a king, a centuriate assembly and the senate; Expulsion of the Etruscans
Beginning in the 700s BCE,first rulers of Roman Republic and Empire; Laid the foundation for Rome and Roman civilization
form of government in which the leader is not a monarch and certain citizens have the right to vote
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the third century B.C.E.
system whereby Rome allowed some peoples to have full Roman citizenship, while most of the remaining communities were made allies
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.
First Punic War
264 B.C. - 241 B.C., Rome and Carthage fought over island of Sicily, was a naval war, Rome was losing because they did not have a good navy, Romans figured out how to board the Carthage ships and fight them there, Romans gained control of Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia (Islands)
Second Punic War
218 B.C. - 202 B.C., Hannibal decides to attack Rome, Sneaks through Gaul with 60,000 troops and 60 Elephants, Wreaks havoc in Rome for 15 years, Roman general named Scipio attacked Carthage making Hannibal come back to Carthage
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
Third Punic War
149- 146 B.C. Cause- roman veterans sought revenge from destruction of second war (farms, animals, and walls were destoyed). Result- Rome wins, carthage totally destroyed, sold population to slavery, salted fields, burned city
Members of the lower class of Ancient Rome including farmers, merchants, artisans and traders
elected to help consuls, commanded armies in times of war and oversaw legal system in times of peace
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families. Originally an advisory body to the early kings, in the era of the Roman Republic they effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire.
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
Formed Second Triumvirate in 43BC with Antony and Lepidus after Caesar's death,reduced power of the Senate, began a period known as Pax Romana or Roman Peace
One of Caesar's generals, Falls in love with Cleopatra, He and Cleopatra declare war on Rome in 31 BC which they lose, member of second triumvirate.
included Crassus, Pompey, and Caesar. Is a government by three people with equal power. Crassus was killed. Caesar became dictator
Octavius, Marc Antony, and Lepidus. Ocatvius took over and Replic was over. entered Pax Romana with Octavius.
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
She was an egyptian queen who had an affair with Marc Antony. She commits suicie with Marc Antony because Marc was defeated at Actium and Augustus was after them.
Battle of Actium
final battle between the forces of Octavian and those of Cleopatra and Marc Antony; resulted in final victory for Octavian; 31 BC
Five Good Emperors
Five consecutive Roman emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius) distinguished by their benevolence and moderation.
the earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up by patricians about 450B.C., that became the foundation of Roman law
Law of Nations
a branch of Roman law that was applied to citizens in all parts of the Empire regardless of nationality
a large amphitheater built in rome aropund A.D. 70; site of contests and combats between people and animals
greatest poet of the Golden Age, called the "Homer of Rome" because the Iliad and the Odyssey served as models for his epic, the Aeneid; focus on Patriotism; it took 10 years to write
An epic poem by Virgil chronicling the adventures of the Trojan prince Aeneas that portrayed the Roman ideals of duty, piety and faithfulness; Aeneas was the ancestor of Romulus
A teacher and prophet whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians believe Jesus to be Son of God and the Christ.
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
A Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in Anatolia, he initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but, according to Christian belief, after receiving a revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus, he became arguably the most significant figure in the spread of Christianity and the shaping of its doctrine.
The second part of the Christian Bible, containing descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus and of his early followers
The Roman governor of Judea. Although he found Jesus guilty of nothing, he sentenced him to death by crucifixion.
Roman Emperor notorious for his monstrous vice and fantastic luxury (was said to have started a fire that destroyed much of Rome in 64) but the Empire remained prosperous during his rule (37-68)
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
Emperor of Rome (284-305) who divided the empire into east and west (286) in an attempt to rule the territory more effectively. His desire to revive the old religion of Rome led to the last major persecution of the Christians
A member of the western Goths that invaded the Roman Empire in the fourth century A.D. and settled in France and Spain, establishing a monarchy that lasted until the early eighth century.
a Germanic tribe that attacked Rome in 476 AD. The Leader was Odoacar, who kicked out the last Roman Emperor.
last emperor of the Western Roman Empire; deposed by the Germanic head of the army in 476