Holes A&P Chptr 2 Chemical Basis of Life

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Understanding words, Learning outcomes, Practice Questions and Summary Review

Bio-

Life: Biochemistry- branch of science dealing with the chemistry of life forms

di-

two: disaccaride - compound whose molecule is composed of two bonded sugars

glyc-

sweet: glycogen- a complex carbohydrate composed of glucose molecules bonded in a particular way

iso-

equal: isotope- atom that has the same atomic number as another atom but a different atomic weight.

lip-

fat: lipids- groups of organic compounds that includes fats

-lyt,

dissolveable: electrolyte- substance that releases ions in water

mono-

one: monosaccharide- molecule is a single sugar unit

nucle-

Kernal: nucleus- central core of an atom

poly-

many: polyunsaturated- molecule with two or more double bonds between its carbon atoms.

sacchar-

sugar: monosaccharide- molecule is a singular sugar unit

syn-

together: synthesis- process by which chemicals join to form new types of chemicals

-Valent

having power: covalent bond- chemical bond produced when two atoms share electrons.

Atom

the smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element

Electron, e-

extremely small particle with almost no weight; carries a negative electrical charge and is in constant motion around an atomic nucleus

Proton, p+

relatively large particle; carries a positive electrical charge and is found within a nucleus of an atom

Neutron, (n*) zero power

particle. about the same weight as a proton. uncharged. electrically neutral. found within an atomic nucleus.

ion

a particle that is electrically charged because it has gained or lost one or more electrons

Molecule

particle formed by the chemical union of two or more atoms

Why is a knowledge of chemistry essential to understanding Physiology? (2.1)

Chemistry deals with the composition of substances and changes in their composition. The human body is composed of chemicals.

What is biochemistry? (2.1)

Biochemistry is the chemistry of living organisms

What is the relationship between matter and elements?

matter is anything that has weight and takes up space. Naturally occurring matter on earth is composed of 92 elements.
Elements usually occur in combinations called compounds.
Elements are composed of Atoms.
Atoms of different elements vary in size, weight, and ways of interacting.

What elements are most common in the human body?

carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus are termed bulk elements. These elements make up more than 95% (by weight) of the human body.

Where are electrons, protons, and neutrons located within an atom?

the nucleus

what is an isotope?

Atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic weights

Atomic radiation, what are the 3 forms they emit?

The energy or atomic fragments released by elements that have unstable nuclei that decompose, releasing pieces of themselves until they reach a stable form. the energy or atomic fragments that radioactive isotopes emit; comes in three forms: alpha(α), beta(β), and gamma(γ

Atomic structure: an atom consist of?

electrons surrounding a nucleus, which has protons and neutrons. The exception is hydrogen which only has a proton in its nucleus.

what charge does an electron have?

negative charge

what charge does a proton have?

Positive charge

what charge does a neutron have?

neutrons have no charge

what charge does a COMPLETE atom have?

a complete atom is electrically neutral

The atomic number of a an element is equal to?

The number of protons in each atom.

The atomic number of an element is equal to ?

the number of protons in each atom

The atomic weight is equal to?

the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in each atom.

Isotopes are?

atoms with the same atomic number but different atomic weight; due to differing numbers of neutrons

All isotopes of an element react ______in the same manner

chemically

some isotopes are _____ and release atomic radiation

radioactive

Molecules and compounds: Two or more atoms may combine to form a?

molecule

A molecule formula represents the _____ and _____ in a molecule

numbers; types of atoms

If atoms of the same element combine, they produce?

molecules of that element

if atoms of different elements combine, they form?

molecules of substances called compounds

Bonding of Atoms: what do atoms do when they combine?

they gain, lose or share electrons

Electrons occupy space in areas called?

electron shells; that encircle an atomic nucleus.

atoms with completely filled outer shells are active or inactive?

Inactive

Atoms with with incompletely filled outer shells gains, lose, or share electrons, or all of the above? and thus become stable.

all of the above. They gain, share or lose electrons and thus become stable

Atoms that lose electrons become___ charged

positively +; cations

Atoms that gain electrons become ___ charged

Negatively -; anions

ions with opposite charges attract and join by__

ionic bonds

atoms that share electrons join by

covalent bonds

a structural formula represents the arrangements of atoms in a___?

molecule

polar molecules result from an _____sharing of electrons

unequal

_____bonds may form between polar molecules?

Hydrogen

In a ________ , bonds between atoms, ions, or molecules break or form

Chemical Reaction

3 types of chemical reactions are?

1. synthesis, 2. Decomposition, 3. Exchange

Synthesis is?

synthesis in which large molecules build up from smaller ones

decomposition is?

in which molecules break down

Exchange is?

where parts of two different molecules trade positions

Many reactions are reversible True or False?

TRUE

The direction of a reaction depends upon?

The direction of a reaction depends upon the proportion of reactants of products, the energy available , and the presence or absence of catalyst * enzymes

compounds that ionize in water are?

electrolytes

Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions are?

Acids

Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions are acids and those that release hydroxide or other ions that react with hydrogen are ions are what?

Bases

Acids and bases react to form water and electrolytes called?

salts

pH represents the concentration of?

hydrogen ions H+ and hydroxide ions OH- in a solution.

a solution with equal numbers of H+ and OH- is ____ and has a solution of ____?

neutral, 7.0

a solution with more H+ than OH- is _____?

acidic; a pH less than 7.0

a solution with fewer H+ than OH- is?

basic; pH greater than 7.0

a _____(double, triple, or tenfold) difference in hydrogen ion concentration separates each whole number in the pH scale.

tenfold

___ are chemicals that resist pH change?

Buffers

what is matter?

matter is anything that has weight and takes up space

Naturally occurring matter on earth is composed of how many elements?

92 elements

Elements usually occur in combinations called ?

compounds

Elements are composed of ?

Atoms.

Atoms of different elements vary in?

size, weight, and ways of interacting.

Molecules containing carbon and hydrogen are organic and usually ___?

Nonelectrolytes

Molecules that are inorganic are usually?

Electrolytes

What is the most abundant compound in the body?

water

What are some of the many chemical reactions that take place in water?

Water transports chemicals and heat and helps release excess body heat.

Oxygen releases energy for ___ activities

Metabolic

oxygen releases energy for metabolic activities from __ and other molecules

glucose

Carbon dioxide is produced when?

certain metabolic processes release energy

Inorganic salts provide ___ needed in a variety of metabolic processes

ions

_____must be present in certain concentrations inside and outside of cells

electrolytes

___ provides much of the energy cells require and are built of simple sugar molecules

Carbohydrates

Lipids such as ____ ; ____; and _____ supply energy and are used to build cell parts. Their building blocks are molecules of ___ and ____

fats; phospholipids; and steroids.
glycerol and fatty acids

Proteins serve as ____ ( name 7) that initiate or speed chemical reactions without being consumed

structural materials, energy sources, hormones, cell surface receptors, antibodies, and enzymes

The building blocks of proteins are?

Amino Acids

Proteins vary in numbers and types of their __

constituent amino acids; and their three dimensional structures, or conformations

The amino acid sequence determines what?

the protein's conformation

The proteins conformation determines its?

function

Exposure to excessive heat, radiation, electricity, or certain chemicals can do what to proteins?

Denature proteins

Nucleic acids constitutes genes, the instructions that control cell activities, and direct protein synthesis.

1. the 2 types are RNA and DNA
2. Nucleic acid building blocks are Nucleotides
3. DNA molecules store information that cell parts used to construct specific proteins
4. RNA molecules help synthesize proteins
5. RNA molecules are replicated, and an exact copy of the original cell's DNA is passed to each of the newly formed cells resulting from cell division

Define Chemistry

Considers the composition of substances and how they change.

Explain the difference between chemistry and biochemistry

Chemistry is the study of the composition of substances and how they change. Biochemistry is the chemistry of living organisms.

define matter

anything that has weight and takes up space. this includes all solids, liquids, and gases, in our surroundings as well as in our bodies.

Define compound

A substance consisting of two or more elements that are chemically combined.

List 4 of the most abundant elements in the human body

Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen; sulfur, phosphorus, these elements make up more than 95% of the body by weight.

explain the relationship between elements and atoms.

Elements are composed of particles called atoms, the smallest complete units of the elements

Identify the major parts of an atom and indicate where they are found within an atom.

An atom consist of a central portion called the nucleus, and one or more electrons. that constantly move around the nucleus. The nucleus contains one or more relatively large particles, protons and usually neutrons. Protons and neutrons are about equal in weight, but they are otherwise different. Electrons are so small they at they have almost no weight, carry a single negative electrical charge e- each proton carries a single, positive electrical charge p+ Neutrons are uncharged and thus are electrically neutral. the neucleus contains protons, so this part of an atom is always positively charged. However the number of electrons outside the nucleus equals the number of protons , so a complete atom is said to have no net charge and is thus electrically neutral.

distinguish between protons and neutrons.

Protons and neutrons are about equal in weight, but they are otherwise different. protons carry a single, positive electrical charge p+ Neutrons are uncharged and thus are electrically neutral.

Explain why a complete atom is electrically neutral

The nucleus has a certain number of protons (p+) which is surrounded by the same number of electrons (e-) which cancel each other

Distinguish between atomic number and atomic weight

Atomic number refers to the number of protons in the atom. Atomic weight is calculated by the number of protons plus neutrons

define isotope

an atom with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons...according to book...Atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic weight

atomic radiation

The energy or atomic fragments released by elements that have unstable nuclei that decompose, releasing pieces of themselves until they reach a stable form

explain the relationship between molecules and compounds

When 2 or more atoms bond, they create molecules. When two or more molecules bond, they form compounds.

explain how electrons are distributed within the electron shells of atoms.

the electrons of an atom occupy one or more regions of space called electron shells that encircle the nucleus. Because electrons have a level of energy characteristic of the particular shell they are in, the shells are sometimes called energy shells. Each electron shell can hold a limited number of electrons. the maximum number of electrons that each of the first three shells can hold for elements of atomic number 18 and under is: FIRST SHELL closest to the nucleus is 2 electrons , SECOND SHELL 8 electrons, THIRD SHELL is 8 electrons. More complex atoms may have as many as 18 electrons in the third shell.

explain why some atoms are chemically inert

outermost electron shells are filled. These atoms cannot form chemical bonds. Such atoms as helium, whose outermost electron shells are filled, already have stable structures and are chemically inactive or inert meaning they can not form chemical bonds.

An ionic bond forms when_____?
a. atoms share electrons
b. positively charge and negatively charged pats of covalent molecules attract
c. ions with opposite electrical charges attract
d. two atoms exchange protons
e. an element has 2 isotopes

c. ions with opposite electrical charges attract

A covalent bond forms when____?
a. atoms share electrons
b. positively charged and negatively charged parts of covalent molecules attract
c. ions with opposite electrical charges attract
d tow atoms exchange protons
e. an element has 2 types of isotopes

a. atoms share electrons

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