Hole's Human A&P Chapter 10

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Terms and general information from Holes Human Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 10, 9th edition

Organs of the nervous system are divided into _____ and _____ nervous systems.

central, peripheral

The motor portion of the PNS that carries out voluntary activities is the _______ nervous system.

somatic

The motor portion of the PNS that carries out involuntary activities is the ______ nervous system.

autonomic

A network of fine threads that extend into the axon for support.

neurofibrils

Neural tissue consists of the two cell types ______ and ______.

neurons, neuroglia

Small cellular processes that receive impulses are called _______.

dendrites

The small space between the neuron and cell with which it communicates is called a ________.

synapse

Biological messenger molecules are called _____.

neurotransmitters

The central nervous system consists of the ______ and _______.

brain, spinal cord

Cranial and spinal nerves that connect the CNS to other body parts is called the ________.

peripheral nervous system

Motor functions of the nervous system are carried out by neurons that carry impulses from the CNS to responsive structures called _____.

effectors

Effectors located outside of the nervous system consists of ______ and ______.

muscles, glands

A neuron cell body is also known as a ______ or ______.

soma, perikaryon

The motor portion of the PNS can be subdivided into the ______ and _______ nervous systems.

somatic, autonomic

The axon may give off branches called _______.

collaterals

The ends of a synaptic knob close to the receptive surface of another cell, separated only by a space is called the ________.

synaptic cleft

Within which portion of the nervous system are large axons encased by neuroglia called Schwann cells?

PNS

The myelin sheaths of peripheral neurons are encased by a ______ or ________ sheath.

neurilemma, neurilemmal

Narrow gaps in the myelin sheath between schwann cells are called _________.

nodes of Ranvier

The three classes of neurons are _______, ______ and _______.

unipolar, bipolar, multipolar

The type of neurons found mostly in the brain and spinal cord are _______ neurons.

multipolar

The type of neurons found in specialized parts of the eyes, nose and ears are _______ neurons.

bipolar

The type of neurons located outside of the brain and spinal cord and aggregated in specializes masses of nerve tissue called ganglia are _______ neurons.

unipolar

______ neurons carry nerve impulses from peripheral body parts into the brain or spinal cord.

Sensory (afferent)

The type of neurons that are multipolar and form links between other neurons are called ________.

interneurons

They type of neuron that is multipolar and carries impulses from the brain or spinal cord to effectors is called a _______ neuron.

motor

The four types of CNS neuroglia are:

astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells

The two types of PNS neuroglia are:

Schwann cells, satellite cells

A type of CNS neuroglia found between blood vessels and neurons.

astrocytes

A type of CNS neuroglia that phagocytize bacteria and debris, and proliferate when the brain or spinal cord is inflamed.

microglia

A type of CNS neuroglia that forms the inner lining of the spinal cord's central canal.

ependyma

Cells that form a one-cell thick epithelial membrane that covers the inside spaces of the brain called ventricles are ________ cells.

ependymal

Which CNS neuroglia help regulate the composition of cerebrospinal fluid?

ependymal cells

Specialized capillaries (choroid plexuses) are covered by these type of CNS neuroglia.

ependymal cells

A type of CNS neuroglia that mops up excess ions and neurotransmitters is called an ________.

astrocyte

What is the function of Schwann cells?

To speed neurotransmission

Small, cuboidal cells that surround cell bodies of neurons in ganglia are called ________ cells.

satellite

These type of CNS neuroglia form a porous layer for substances to diffuse between the interstitial fluid of the brain and spinal cord and CS fluid.

ependymal cells

Synaptic knobs of axon terminals contain arrays of membranous sacs (containing neurotransmitters) called _______.

synaptic vesicles

Synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters by the process of ________.

exocytosis

The meaning for polarized as it concerns a cell membrane is ________.

electrically charged

The difference in electrical charge across the neural cell membrane (this is unused) is called the _________.

membrane potential

In the case of a resting neuron (not sending or receiving) the membrane potential is called _______.

resting potential

What is the value of a membrane resting potential?

-70 millivolts (relative to the inside of cell)

If the membrane potential becomes more negative than the resting potential the membrane is described as ________.

hyperpolarized

If the membrane potential becomes less negative (more positive) than the resting potential them membrane is described as ______.

depolarized

With a depolarized membrane, when the membrane potential reaches -55 millivolts, this is called ______.

threshold potential

If threshold potential is reached an _______ results which is the basis for a nerve impulse.

action potential

In a multipolar neuron the initial segment of an axon is often referred to as the ________ because it contains many voltage-gated sodium channels.

trigger zone

The brief period of time after the passage of a nerve impulse when a new stimulus cannot be triggered is called the _________.

refractory period

What are the two parts of the refractory period?

absolute (1/2,500 s) (no impulse can be triggered), relative (resting potential reestablished - impulse can be triggered)

The type of impulse conduction where action potentials appear to jump from node to node is called _______.

saltatory conduction

Changes in chemically-gated ion channels create local potentials called _______.

synaptic potentials

A disease in which the myelin coating becomes inflamed and is destroyed leaving scars that block neural transmission is ________.

multiple sclerosis

Excess GABA that leads to excess norepinephrine and dopamine causes ________.

epilepsy

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