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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Hypertrophy
  2. Hydropic Degeneration (any type of hypoxia)
  3. Cellular Accumulations
  4. Metaplasia
  5. Coagulative Necrosis
  1. a
    occurs in KIDNEYS, HEART, and ADRENAL GLANDS commonly results from hypoxia caused by severe ischemia or hypoxia caused by chemical injury; Coagulation is cause by PROTEIN DENATURATION, which causes the protein albumin to change from gelatinous, transparent state to a firm, opaque state; bonds in protein break and they unfold
  2. b
    very common w/any hypoxia, even as momentary as leg falling asleep; can be reversed; 1) injury, 2) ATP production decreases, 3) sodium and water move into cell, Potassium moves out of cell, 4) Osmotic pressure increases 5) more water moves into cell, 6) cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum distend, rupture, and form vacuoles, 7) extensive vacuolation, 8) hydropic degeneration
  3. c (infiltration); intracellular accoumulation of abnormal amounts of various substances and the resultant metabolic disturbances; results not only from sublethal, sustained injury by cells but also result from normal (but inefficient) cell function; Normal cellular substances ( excess water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) or abnormal substance (endogenous - product of abnormalmetabolism or synthesis, exogenous - infectious agents or minerals)
  4. d
    reversible replacement of one mature cell type by another, sometimes less differentiated, cell type; develops from a reprogramming of stem cells that exist on most epithelia or of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells present in connective tissue; Normal process (such as uterus); uniform to each other and relatively organized; is REVERSIBLE
  5. e an increase in the size of cells and consequently in size of affected organ; heart and kidneys are very prone; associated with increased accumulation of protein in the cellular components (PM, ER, mitochondrea) and NOT with an increase in cellular fluid; can be physiologic or pathologic; is REVERSIBLE

5 Multiple Choice Questions


  1. refers to death of tissue from SEVERE HYPOXIC INJURY, commonly occuring beause of arteriosclerosis, or blockage of major arteries, particularly those in LOWER EXTREMITIES; With hypoxia and subsequent bacterial invasion the sittues uncergo necrosis; can be DRY, WET, or GAS

  2. occurs in LUNGS; usually results from TB PULMONARY INFECTION, especially by Myobacterium tuberculosis; Combination of COAGULATIVE AND LIQUEFACTIVE necroses; The dead cells disintegrate, bt debris is not completely digested by hydrolases; Tissues resemble clumped cheese in that they are soft and granular; A granulomatous inflammatory wall encloses areas of caseous necrosis; Tb starts to kill lung tissue (liquefactive) and macrophages come in and stop it and coagulate the tissue - why you see tubricles in lungs
  3. abnormal intercellular accumulation of carbohydrates and lipids; priamarily found in spleen, liver, and CNS; can cause "fatty liver": as lipids fill cells, vacuolation pushes the nucleus and other organelles aside; liver's outward appearance is yellow and greasy; Alcohol abuse most common cause
  4. refers to a special type of gangrene cause by INFECTION of injured tissue by one of many species of Clostridium; these anaerobic bacteria produce HYDROLYTIC ENYMES and TOXINS that detroy connective tissue and cellular membranes and cause bubbles of gas to from in muscle cells; this can be fatal if enzymes lyse the membrane of RBCs, dstorying thier O2 carrying capasity; Death is caused by shock.
  5. ATP deletion, Reactive Oxygen Species, Ca++ entry, Mitochondrial damage, Membrane damage, Protein misfolding/DNA damage - Table 3-2

5 True/False Questions

  1. Ischemia
    abnormal changes in the size, shape and organization of mature cells; no considered true adaptive process but is related to hyperplaia and is often called atypical hyperplasia; often encountered in epithelial tissue of the cervix and respiratory tract; can, but not always, turn to cancer; often reversible

          

  2. Necrosis
    is cellular dissolution caused by power enzymes, called LIPASES, that occur in BREAST, PANCREAS, and, other ABDOMINAL ORGANS; Lipases break down triglycerides, releaseing free fatty acids that then combine with calcium, magnesium and sodium ions, creating SOAPS (saponification); Necrotic tissue appears opaque and chalk-white.

          

  3. Fat Necrosis
    is cellular dissolution caused by power enzymes, called LIPASES, that occur in BREAST, PANCREAS, and, other ABDOMINAL ORGANS; Lipases break down triglycerides, releaseing free fatty acids that then combine with calcium, magnesium and sodium ions, creating SOAPS (saponification); Necrotic tissue appears opaque and chalk-white.

          

  4. Liquefactive Necrosis
    occurs in KIDNEYS, HEART, and ADRENAL GLANDS commonly results from hypoxia caused by severe ischemia or hypoxia caused by chemical injury; Coagulation is cause by PROTEIN DENATURATION, which causes the protein albumin to change from gelatinous, transparent state to a firm, opaque state; bonds in protein break and they unfold

          

  5. Dysplasia
    reversible replacement of one mature cell type by another, sometimes less differentiated, cell type; develops from a reprogramming of stem cells that exist on most epithelia or of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells present in connective tissue; Normal process (such as uterus); uniform to each other and relatively organized; is REVERSIBLE

          

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