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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Ischemia
  2. Fat Necrosis
  3. Cellular Accumulations - Glycogen
  4. Strangulation
  5. Caseous Necrosis
  1. a caused by compression and closure of blood vessels and air passages resulting from external pressure on neck; causes cerbral hypoxia or anoxia secondary to alteration or cessation of blood flow to and from brain; hanging (inverted V on neck), ligature (horizontal mark on neck), manual strangulation (hands on neck)
  2. b
    occurs in LUNGS; usually results from TB PULMONARY INFECTION, especially by Myobacterium tuberculosis; Combination of COAGULATIVE AND LIQUEFACTIVE necroses; The dead cells disintegrate, bt debris is not completely digested by hydrolases; Tissues resemble clumped cheese in that they are soft and granular; A granulomatous inflammatory wall encloses areas of caseous necrosis; Tb starts to kill lung tissue (liquefactive) and macrophages come in and stop it and coagulate the tissue - why you see tubricles in lungs
  3. c seen in genetic disorders called 'glycogen storage disease' and in disorders of glucose and glycogen metabolism; results in excessive vacuolation of cytoplasm (like water); most common cuase is diabetes mellitus; when not storing glucose or glycogen correctly, breakdown in energy of cell
  4. d
    is cellular dissolution caused by power enzymes, called LIPASES, that occur in BREAST, PANCREAS, and, other ABDOMINAL ORGANS; Lipases break down triglycerides, releaseing free fatty acids that then combine with calcium, magnesium and sodium ions, creating SOAPS (saponification); Necrotic tissue appears opaque and chalk-white.
  5. e reduced blood supply; often caused by gradual narrowing of arteries (artiosclerosis) and complete blockage by blood clots (thrombosis); progressive hypoxia caused by gradual arterial obstruction is better tlerated than acute anoxia (total lack of oxygen)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. the sum of cellular changes after local cell death and the process of cellular self-digestion, knon as autodigestion (autolysis); Damage to the plasma membrane and cell structures; 6 Major Types of Necrosis are Coagulative necrosis, Liquefactive Necrosis, Caseous Necrosis, Fat Necrosis and Gangrenous Necrosis

  2. commonly results from ischemic injury to neurons and glial cells in BRAIN; dead brain tissue is readily affected because brain cells are rich in digestive HYDROLITIC ENZYMES and lipids and the brain contains little connective tissue; Cells are digested by their own HYDROLASES so the tissue becomes soft, liquefies and segregates from healthy dtissue, forming cytsts; Can be caused by BACTERIAL INFECTION, especially Staphylococci, Streptococci, and Escherichia coli.

  3. most diseases begin with cell injury; occurs if the cell is unable to maintain homeostatis in face o finjurious stimulie; may be reverisble or irreversible (die)
  4. refers to a special type of gangrene cause by INFECTION of injured tissue by one of many species of Clostridium; these anaerobic bacteria produce HYDROLYTIC ENYMES and TOXINS that detroy connective tissue and cellular membranes and cause bubbles of gas to from in muscle cells; this can be fatal if enzymes lyse the membrane of RBCs, dstorying thier O2 carrying capasity; Death is caused by shock.

  5. Necrosis is caused by exogenous injury whereby cells are swollen and have nuclear changes in ruptured cell membrane; Apoptosis is single cell death. It is genetically programmed (suicide genes) and depends on energy. Apoptotic bodies contain part of nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, which are ultimately engulfed by macrophages or adjacent cells; Cell membrane stays intact but has 'lubbing'; happenes throughout life and is very benificial component

5 True/False questions

  1. Cellular Accumulations
    a reversible, structural, or functional response both to normal or physiologic conditions and to adverse or pathologic conditions; Atrophy, Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Dysplasia, Metaplasia


  2. Cellular Accumulations - Watercellular swelling, most common degenerative change, is caused by shift of extracellular water into cells; usually occurs in spleen, liver, CNS; cisternae of ER become distended, rupture, and then unite to form large vacuoles that isolate water from cytoplasm (called vacuolation); results in oncosis (hydropic degeneration)


  3. Celular Deathclassified as necrosis and apoptosis; Necrosis characterized by rapid loss of plasma membrane structure, organelle swelling, mitochondrial dysfunction and lack of typical features of apoptosis; Apoptosis is known as regulated or programmed cell process characterized by the "dropping off' of cellular fragments called apoptotic bodies


  4. Cellular Injury


  5. Hypertrophy
    a decrease or shrinkage in cellular size; if atrophy happens in sufficient number of an organ's cells, the entire organ shrinks; can be physiological like thymus, pathological (disease process), or disuse; is REVERSIBLE


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