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5 Written questions

4 Matching questions

  1. Hyperplasia
  2. Celular Death
  3. Cellular Accumulations - Lipids and Carbohydrates
  4. Cellular Injury
  1. a classified as necrosis and apoptosis; Necrosis characterized by rapid loss of plasma membrane structure, organelle swelling, mitochondrial dysfunction and lack of typical features of apoptosis; Apoptosis is known as regulated or programmed cell process characterized by the "dropping off' of cellular fragments called apoptotic bodies
  2. b
  3. c an increase in the number of cells resulting from an increased rate of cellular division; as a response to injury, occurs when ijury has been severe and prolonged enough to have caused cell death; cells still relatively uniform, almost normal looking, just more of them; hormonal and pathologic
  4. d abnormal intercellular accumulation of carbohydrates and lipids; priamarily found in spleen, liver, and CNS; can cause "fatty liver": as lipids fill cells, vacuolation pushes the nucleus and other organelles aside; liver's outward appearance is yellow and greasy; Alcohol abuse most common cause

5 Multiple choice questions


  1. developes when NEUTROPHILS invade the site, causing LIQUEFACTIVE necrosis; usually occurs in INTERNAL ORGANS, causing site to beome cold, swollen and black; foul odor is present, and if systemic symptoms become severe, death can ensue; Thrombisis/embolism (blockage of blood), strangulated hernia (no adequate O2 or blood), valvulus (twist of intestine), intussusception (intestine falling into self)
  2. mutations in protien can slow protein folding so cell is filled with unfolded proteins, which might not be in the proper format to be used; also, metabolites (used to digest some proteins) are released from lysosomes can damage cellular organells and excessive amounts of protien in cytoplsm push against cellular organells, disrupting organelle function and intracellular communication; accumulates primarily in epithelial cells of renal confoluted tubule and antibody-forming plamsam cells (B-lymphocytes)

  3. a reversible, structural, or functional response both to normal or physiologic conditions and to adverse or pathologic conditions; Atrophy, Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Dysplasia, Metaplasia

  4. membrane damage, 2a) loss of phospholipids, alterations of cytoskeleton, activtation of inflammation (complement, cytokines, and leukocytes), increase free radicals, lipid breakdown; 3a) release of enzymes (CPK, LDH) (end), 3b) increase CA influx; 2b) increase swelling of lysosomes, 3) increased release of lysosomal enzymes (hydrolases), 4) cellular digestion (autodigestion)
  5. reduced blood supply; often caused by gradual narrowing of arteries (artiosclerosis) and complete blockage by blood clots (thrombosis); progressive hypoxia caused by gradual arterial obstruction is better tlerated than acute anoxia (total lack of oxygen)

5 True/False questions

  1. Hydropic Degeneration (any type of hypoxia)an increase in the size of cells and consequently in size of affected organ; heart and kidneys are very prone; associated with increased accumulation of protein in the cellular components (PM, ER, mitochondrea) and NOT with an increase in cellular fluid; can be physiologic or pathologic; is REVERSIBLE

          

  2. Cellular Accumulations - Glycogenseen in genetic disorders called 'glycogen storage disease' and in disorders of glucose and glycogen metabolism; results in excessive vacuolation of cytoplasm (like water); most common cuase is diabetes mellitus; when not storing glucose or glycogen correctly, breakdown in energy of cell

          

  3. Apoptosis vs Necrosis
    occurs in KIDNEYS, HEART, and ADRENAL GLANDS commonly results from hypoxia caused by severe ischemia or hypoxia caused by chemical injury; Coagulation is cause by PROTEIN DENATURATION, which causes the protein albumin to change from gelatinous, transparent state to a firm, opaque state; bonds in protein break and they unfold

          

  4. Gas Gangrenerefers to a special type of gangrene cause by INFECTION of injured tissue by one of many species of Clostridium; these anaerobic bacteria produce HYDROLYTIC ENYMES and TOXINS that detroy connective tissue and cellular membranes and cause bubbles of gas to from in muscle cells; this can be fatal if enzymes lyse the membrane of RBCs, dstorying thier O2 carrying capasity; Death is caused by shock.

          

  5. Cellular Injury Induced by Ischemia - Reversible
    membrane damage, 2a) loss of phospholipids, alterations of cytoskeleton, activtation of inflammation (complement, cytokines, and leukocytes), increase free radicals, lipid breakdown; 3a) release of enzymes (CPK, LDH) (end), 3b) increase CA influx; 2b) increase swelling of lysosomes, 3) increased release of lysosomal enzymes (hydrolases), 4) cellular digestion (autodigestion)

          

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