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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Drowning
  2. Wet Gangrene
  3. Celular Death
  4. Coagulative Necrosis
  5. Necrosis
  1. a an alteration of oxygen delivery to tissues resulting from inhalation of fluid, usually water; major mechanism of injury is hypoxemia (low blood O2 levels); can have dry-lung drowning that causes laryngospasms instead of actual water
  2. b classified as necrosis and apoptosis; Necrosis characterized by rapid loss of plasma membrane structure, organelle swelling, mitochondrial dysfunction and lack of typical features of apoptosis; Apoptosis is known as regulated or programmed cell process characterized by the "dropping off' of cellular fragments called apoptotic bodies
  3. c the sum of cellular changes after local cell death and the process of cellular self-digestion, knon as autodigestion (autolysis); Damage to the plasma membrane and cell structures; 6 Major Types of Necrosis are Coagulative necrosis, Liquefactive Necrosis, Caseous Necrosis, Fat Necrosis and Gangrenous Necrosis
  4. d
    developes when NEUTROPHILS invade the site, causing LIQUEFACTIVE necrosis; usually occurs in INTERNAL ORGANS, causing site to beome cold, swollen and black; foul odor is present, and if systemic symptoms become severe, death can ensue; Thrombisis/embolism (blockage of blood), strangulated hernia (no adequate O2 or blood), valvulus (twist of intestine), intussusception (intestine falling into self)
  5. e
    occurs in KIDNEYS, HEART, and ADRENAL GLANDS commonly results from hypoxia caused by severe ischemia or hypoxia caused by chemical injury; Coagulation is cause by PROTEIN DENATURATION, which causes the protein albumin to change from gelatinous, transparent state to a firm, opaque state; bonds in protein break and they unfold

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. either prevent the delivery of oxygen to the tissues or block its utilization; doesn't allow hemaglobin to attach to oxygen or doesn't allow O2 to pass alveoli; Carbon Monoxide is the most common; Cyanide acts as an asphyxiant by combining w/ferric iron atom in cytochrome oxidase, blocking the intracellular use of oxygen, has same cherry fred appearance as a carbon monoxide intoxication; Hydrogen Sulfide (sewer gas) that may have brown-tinged blood in addition to nonspecific signs of asphyxiation
  2. mutations in protien can slow protein folding so cell is filled with unfolded proteins, which might not be in the proper format to be used; also, metabolites (used to digest some proteins) are released from lysosomes can damage cellular organells and excessive amounts of protien in cytoplsm push against cellular organells, disrupting organelle function and intracellular communication; accumulates primarily in epithelial cells of renal confoluted tubule and antibody-forming plamsam cells (B-lymphocytes)

  3. reversible replacement of one mature cell type by another, sometimes less differentiated, cell type; develops from a reprogramming of stem cells that exist on most epithelia or of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells present in connective tissue; Normal process (such as uterus); uniform to each other and relatively organized; is REVERSIBLE
  4. an increase in the number of cells resulting from an increased rate of cellular division; as a response to injury, occurs when ijury has been severe and prolonged enough to have caused cell death; cells still relatively uniform, almost normal looking, just more of them; hormonal and pathologic
  5. reduced blood supply; often caused by gradual narrowing of arteries (artiosclerosis) and complete blockage by blood clots (thrombosis); progressive hypoxia caused by gradual arterial obstruction is better tlerated than acute anoxia (total lack of oxygen)

5 True/False Questions

  1. Dysplasia
    abnormal changes in the size, shape and organization of mature cells; no considered true adaptive process but is related to hyperplaia and is often called atypical hyperplasia; often encountered in epithelial tissue of the cervix and respiratory tract; can, but not always, turn to cancer; often reversible

          

  2. Atrophy
    a decrease or shrinkage in cellular size; if atrophy happens in sufficient number of an organ's cells, the entire organ shrinks; can be physiological like thymus, pathological (disease process), or disuse; is REVERSIBLE

          

  3. Cellular Accumulations
    a reversible, structural, or functional response both to normal or physiologic conditions and to adverse or pathologic conditions; Atrophy, Hypertrophy, Hyperplasia, Dysplasia, Metaplasia

          

  4. Fat Necrosisthe sum of cellular changes after local cell death and the process of cellular self-digestion, knon as autodigestion (autolysis); Damage to the plasma membrane and cell structures; 6 Major Types of Necrosis are Coagulative necrosis, Liquefactive Necrosis, Caseous Necrosis, Fat Necrosis and Gangrenous Necrosis

          

  5. Common Themes in Cell Injury and Cell Deatheither prevent the delivery of oxygen to the tissues or block its utilization; doesn't allow hemaglobin to attach to oxygen or doesn't allow O2 to pass alveoli; Carbon Monoxide is the most common; Cyanide acts as an asphyxiant by combining w/ferric iron atom in cytochrome oxidase, blocking the intracellular use of oxygen, has same cherry fred appearance as a carbon monoxide intoxication; Hydrogen Sulfide (sewer gas) that may have brown-tinged blood in addition to nonspecific signs of asphyxiation

          

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