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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Atrophy
  2. Cellular Injury
  3. Cellular Accumulations - Water
  4. Drowning
  5. Necrosis
  1. a an alteration of oxygen delivery to tissues resulting from inhalation of fluid, usually water; major mechanism of injury is hypoxemia (low blood O2 levels); can have dry-lung drowning that causes laryngospasms instead of actual water
  2. b the sum of cellular changes after local cell death and the process of cellular self-digestion, knon as autodigestion (autolysis); Damage to the plasma membrane and cell structures; 6 Major Types of Necrosis are Coagulative necrosis, Liquefactive Necrosis, Caseous Necrosis, Fat Necrosis and Gangrenous Necrosis
  3. c
    a decrease or shrinkage in cellular size; if atrophy happens in sufficient number of an organ's cells, the entire organ shrinks; can be physiological like thymus, pathological (disease process), or disuse; is REVERSIBLE
  4. d
    most diseases begin with cell injury; occurs if the cell is unable to maintain homeostatis in face o finjurious stimulie; may be reverisble or irreversible (die)
  5. e cellular swelling, most common degenerative change, is caused by shift of extracellular water into cells; usually occurs in spleen, liver, CNS; cisternae of ER become distended, rupture, and then unite to form large vacuoles that isolate water from cytoplasm (called vacuolation); results in oncosis (hydropic degeneration)

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. refers to a special type of gangrene cause by INFECTION of injured tissue by one of many species of Clostridium; these anaerobic bacteria produce HYDROLYTIC ENYMES and TOXINS that detroy connective tissue and cellular membranes and cause bubbles of gas to from in muscle cells; this can be fatal if enzymes lyse the membrane of RBCs, dstorying thier O2 carrying capasity; Death is caused by shock.
  2. caused by compression and closure of blood vessels and air passages resulting from external pressure on neck; causes cerbral hypoxia or anoxia secondary to alteration or cessation of blood flow to and from brain; hanging (inverted V on neck), ligature (horizontal mark on neck), manual strangulation (hands on neck)
  3. abnormal intercellular accumulation of carbohydrates and lipids; priamarily found in spleen, liver, and CNS; can cause "fatty liver": as lipids fill cells, vacuolation pushes the nucleus and other organelles aside; liver's outward appearance is yellow and greasy; Alcohol abuse most common cause
  4. cuased by failure of cells to receive or use oxygen; deprivation of oxygen may be partial (hypoxia) or total (anoxia); grouped into 4 gneral categories; suffication, strangulation, chemical, and drowning
  5. usually result of COAGULATIVE necrosis; SKIN becomes very dry and shrinks resulting in wrinkles, and its color changes to dark brown or black;

5 True/False questions

  1. Hypoxialack of sufficient oxygen; the single most common cause of cellular injury; can result from reduced amount of oxygen in air, loss of hemoglobin or decreased efficacy of hemoglobin, decreased production of RBCs, diseases of repiratory or cardovascular systems, and poisoning of the oxidative enzymes w/in cell; can induce inflammation and inflamed lesions can become hypoxic; most common form is ischemia (reduced blood supply)

          

  2. Chemical Asphyxiantseither prevent the delivery of oxygen to the tissues or block its utilization; doesn't allow hemaglobin to attach to oxygen or doesn't allow O2 to pass alveoli; Carbon Monoxide is the most common; Cyanide acts as an asphyxiant by combining w/ferric iron atom in cytochrome oxidase, blocking the intracellular use of oxygen, has same cherry fred appearance as a carbon monoxide intoxication; Hydrogen Sulfide (sewer gas) that may have brown-tinged blood in addition to nonspecific signs of asphyxiation

          

  3. Fat Necrosis
    is cellular dissolution caused by power enzymes, called LIPASES, that occur in BREAST, PANCREAS, and, other ABDOMINAL ORGANS; Lipases break down triglycerides, releaseing free fatty acids that then combine with calcium, magnesium and sodium ions, creating SOAPS (saponification); Necrotic tissue appears opaque and chalk-white.

          

  4. Cellular Accumulations - Proteincellular swelling, most common degenerative change, is caused by shift of extracellular water into cells; usually occurs in spleen, liver, CNS; cisternae of ER become distended, rupture, and then unite to form large vacuoles that isolate water from cytoplasm (called vacuolation); results in oncosis (hydropic degeneration)

          

  5. Common Themes in Cell Injury and Cell DeathATP deletion, Reactive Oxygen Species, Ca++ entry, Mitochondrial damage, Membrane damage, Protein misfolding/DNA damage - Table 3-2

          

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