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5 Written Questions

5 Matching Questions

  1. Cellular Accumulations - Glycogen
  2. Apoptosis vs Necrosis
  3. Hyperplasia
  4. Gas Gangrene
  5. Celular Death
  1. a classified as necrosis and apoptosis; Necrosis characterized by rapid loss of plasma membrane structure, organelle swelling, mitochondrial dysfunction and lack of typical features of apoptosis; Apoptosis is known as regulated or programmed cell process characterized by the "dropping off' of cellular fragments called apoptotic bodies
  2. b refers to a special type of gangrene cause by INFECTION of injured tissue by one of many species of Clostridium; these anaerobic bacteria produce HYDROLYTIC ENYMES and TOXINS that detroy connective tissue and cellular membranes and cause bubbles of gas to from in muscle cells; this can be fatal if enzymes lyse the membrane of RBCs, dstorying thier O2 carrying capasity; Death is caused by shock.
  3. c seen in genetic disorders called 'glycogen storage disease' and in disorders of glucose and glycogen metabolism; results in excessive vacuolation of cytoplasm (like water); most common cuase is diabetes mellitus; when not storing glucose or glycogen correctly, breakdown in energy of cell
  4. d an increase in the number of cells resulting from an increased rate of cellular division; as a response to injury, occurs when ijury has been severe and prolonged enough to have caused cell death; cells still relatively uniform, almost normal looking, just more of them; hormonal and pathologic
  5. e
    Necrosis is caused by exogenous injury whereby cells are swollen and have nuclear changes in ruptured cell membrane; Apoptosis is single cell death. It is genetically programmed (suicide genes) and depends on energy. Apoptotic bodies contain part of nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, which are ultimately engulfed by macrophages or adjacent cells; Cell membrane stays intact but has 'lubbing'; happenes throughout life and is very benificial component

5 Multiple Choice Questions

  1. oxygen failing to reach the blood, can result from lack of O2 in environment (entrapment in enclosed space or filling enviro w/suffocating gas), or blockage of external airways (compression of chest, choking)

  2. occurs in LUNGS; usually results from TB PULMONARY INFECTION, especially by Myobacterium tuberculosis; Combination of COAGULATIVE AND LIQUEFACTIVE necroses; The dead cells disintegrate, bt debris is not completely digested by hydrolases; Tissues resemble clumped cheese in that they are soft and granular; A granulomatous inflammatory wall encloses areas of caseous necrosis; Tb starts to kill lung tissue (liquefactive) and macrophages come in and stop it and coagulate the tissue - why you see tubricles in lungs

  3. 1) obstruction or cessation of blood flow; 2) Ischemia, 3a) decrease mitochondrial oxygenation, 4a) severe vaculization of mitochondria (end); 4b) decrease ATP; 5a) decrease Na+ pump, 6) increase intracellular Na, xcellular K,intracellular Ca, 7) increase H2O, 8) increase acute cellular swelling, 5b) 5+6+7 is dilation of endoplasmic reticulum, 6) detatchment of ribosomes, 7) decrease protein synthesis, 8) lipid deposition, 5b) increase glycolysis, 6) decrease glycogen, 7) increase lactate, 8) decrease pH, 9a) nuclear chromatin clumping, 9b) increase swelling of lysosomes
  4. either prevent the delivery of oxygen to the tissues or block its utilization; doesn't allow hemaglobin to attach to oxygen or doesn't allow O2 to pass alveoli; Carbon Monoxide is the most common; Cyanide acts as an asphyxiant by combining w/ferric iron atom in cytochrome oxidase, blocking the intracellular use of oxygen, has same cherry fred appearance as a carbon monoxide intoxication; Hydrogen Sulfide (sewer gas) that may have brown-tinged blood in addition to nonspecific signs of asphyxiation
  5. an increase in the size of cells and consequently in size of affected organ; heart and kidneys are very prone; associated with increased accumulation of protein in the cellular components (PM, ER, mitochondrea) and NOT with an increase in cellular fluid; can be physiologic or pathologic; is REVERSIBLE

5 True/False Questions

  1. Liquefactive Necrosis
    commonly results from ischemic injury to neurons and glial cells in BRAIN; dead brain tissue is readily affected because brain cells are rich in digestive HYDROLITIC ENZYMES and lipids and the brain contains little connective tissue; Cells are digested by their own HYDROLASES so the tissue becomes soft, liquefies and segregates from healthy dtissue, forming cytsts; Can be caused by BACTERIAL INFECTION, especially Staphylococci, Streptococci, and Escherichia coli.

          

  2. Strangulationoxygen failing to reach the blood, can result from lack of O2 in environment (entrapment in enclosed space or filling enviro w/suffocating gas), or blockage of external airways (compression of chest, choking)

          

  3. Cellular Injury Induced by Ischemia - Irreversible
    1) obstruction or cessation of blood flow; 2) Ischemia, 3a) decrease mitochondrial oxygenation, 4a) severe vaculization of mitochondria (end); 4b) decrease ATP; 5a) decrease Na+ pump, 6) increase intracellular Na, xcellular K,intracellular Ca, 7) increase H2O, 8) increase acute cellular swelling, 5b) 5+6+7 is dilation of endoplasmic reticulum, 6) detatchment of ribosomes, 7) decrease protein synthesis, 8) lipid deposition, 5b) increase glycolysis, 6) decrease glycogen, 7) increase lactate, 8) decrease pH, 9a) nuclear chromatin clumping, 9b) increase swelling of lysosomes

          

  4. Apoptosis"dropping off" is an important distinct type of cell death taht differs from necrosis in several ways; is an active process of cellular self-destruction called programmed cell death and is implicated in both normal and pathologic tissue changes; Cells need to die; otherwise, endless proliferation would lead to gigantic bodies; occurs in 1) severe cell injury, 2) accumulation of misfoled proteins, 3) infections, 4) obstruction in tissue ducts; When cell injury exceeds repair mechanisms, the cell triggers apoptosis

          

  5. Hypoxia
    abnormal changes in the size, shape and organization of mature cells; no considered true adaptive process but is related to hyperplaia and is often called atypical hyperplasia; often encountered in epithelial tissue of the cervix and respiratory tract; can, but not always, turn to cancer; often reversible

          

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