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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Strangulation
  2. Gas Gangrene
  3. Chemical Asphyxiants
  4. Cellular Accumulations - Glycogen
  5. Asphyxial Injuries
  1. a seen in genetic disorders called 'glycogen storage disease' and in disorders of glucose and glycogen metabolism; results in excessive vacuolation of cytoplasm (like water); most common cuase is diabetes mellitus; when not storing glucose or glycogen correctly, breakdown in energy of cell
  2. b either prevent the delivery of oxygen to the tissues or block its utilization; doesn't allow hemaglobin to attach to oxygen or doesn't allow O2 to pass alveoli; Carbon Monoxide is the most common; Cyanide acts as an asphyxiant by combining w/ferric iron atom in cytochrome oxidase, blocking the intracellular use of oxygen, has same cherry fred appearance as a carbon monoxide intoxication; Hydrogen Sulfide (sewer gas) that may have brown-tinged blood in addition to nonspecific signs of asphyxiation
  3. c cuased by failure of cells to receive or use oxygen; deprivation of oxygen may be partial (hypoxia) or total (anoxia); grouped into 4 gneral categories; suffication, strangulation, chemical, and drowning
  4. d caused by compression and closure of blood vessels and air passages resulting from external pressure on neck; causes cerbral hypoxia or anoxia secondary to alteration or cessation of blood flow to and from brain; hanging (inverted V on neck), ligature (horizontal mark on neck), manual strangulation (hands on neck)
  5. e refers to a special type of gangrene cause by INFECTION of injured tissue by one of many species of Clostridium; these anaerobic bacteria produce HYDROLYTIC ENYMES and TOXINS that detroy connective tissue and cellular membranes and cause bubbles of gas to from in muscle cells; this can be fatal if enzymes lyse the membrane of RBCs, dstorying thier O2 carrying capasity; Death is caused by shock.

5 Multiple choice questions


  1. 1) obstruction or cessation of blood flow; 2) Ischemia, 3a) decrease mitochondrial oxygenation, 4a) severe vaculization of mitochondria (end); 4b) decrease ATP; 5a) decrease Na+ pump, 6) increase intracellular Na, xcellular K,intracellular Ca, 7) increase H2O, 8) increase acute cellular swelling, 5b) 5+6+7 is dilation of endoplasmic reticulum, 6) detatchment of ribosomes, 7) decrease protein synthesis, 8) lipid deposition, 5b) increase glycolysis, 6) decrease glycogen, 7) increase lactate, 8) decrease pH, 9a) nuclear chromatin clumping, 9b) increase swelling of lysosomes

  2. most diseases begin with cell injury; occurs if the cell is unable to maintain homeostatis in face o finjurious stimulie; may be reverisble or irreversible (die)
  3. ATP deletion, Reactive Oxygen Species, Ca++ entry, Mitochondrial damage, Membrane damage, Protein misfolding/DNA damage - Table 3-2
  4. classified as necrosis and apoptosis; Necrosis characterized by rapid loss of plasma membrane structure, organelle swelling, mitochondrial dysfunction and lack of typical features of apoptosis; Apoptosis is known as regulated or programmed cell process characterized by the "dropping off' of cellular fragments called apoptotic bodies
  5. cellular swelling, most common degenerative change, is caused by shift of extracellular water into cells; usually occurs in spleen, liver, CNS; cisternae of ER become distended, rupture, and then unite to form large vacuoles that isolate water from cytoplasm (called vacuolation); results in oncosis (hydropic degeneration)

5 True/False questions

  1. Hydropic Degeneration (any type of hypoxia)mutations in protien can slow protein folding so cell is filled with unfolded proteins, which might not be in the proper format to be used; also, metabolites (used to digest some proteins) are released from lysosomes can damage cellular organells and excessive amounts of protien in cytoplsm push against cellular organells, disrupting organelle function and intracellular communication; accumulates primarily in epithelial cells of renal confoluted tubule and antibody-forming plamsam cells (B-lymphocytes)

          

  2. Hypertrophy
    a decrease or shrinkage in cellular size; if atrophy happens in sufficient number of an organ's cells, the entire organ shrinks; can be physiological like thymus, pathological (disease process), or disuse; is REVERSIBLE

          

  3. Cellular Accumulations - Proteincellular swelling, most common degenerative change, is caused by shift of extracellular water into cells; usually occurs in spleen, liver, CNS; cisternae of ER become distended, rupture, and then unite to form large vacuoles that isolate water from cytoplasm (called vacuolation); results in oncosis (hydropic degeneration)

          

  4. Cellular Accumulations - Lipids and Carbohydratesabnormal intercellular accumulation of carbohydrates and lipids; priamarily found in spleen, liver, and CNS; can cause "fatty liver": as lipids fill cells, vacuolation pushes the nucleus and other organelles aside; liver's outward appearance is yellow and greasy; Alcohol abuse most common cause

          

  5. Fat Necrosis
    is cellular dissolution caused by power enzymes, called LIPASES, that occur in BREAST, PANCREAS, and, other ABDOMINAL ORGANS; Lipases break down triglycerides, releaseing free fatty acids that then combine with calcium, magnesium and sodium ions, creating SOAPS (saponification); Necrotic tissue appears opaque and chalk-white.

          

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