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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Drowning
  2. Liquefactive Necrosis
  3. Suffocation
  4. Cellular Accumulations - Glycogen
  5. Atrophy
  1. a
    a decrease or shrinkage in cellular size; if atrophy happens in sufficient number of an organ's cells, the entire organ shrinks; can be physiological like thymus, pathological (disease process), or disuse; is REVERSIBLE
  2. b oxygen failing to reach the blood, can result from lack of O2 in environment (entrapment in enclosed space or filling enviro w/suffocating gas), or blockage of external airways (compression of chest, choking)
  3. c an alteration of oxygen delivery to tissues resulting from inhalation of fluid, usually water; major mechanism of injury is hypoxemia (low blood O2 levels); can have dry-lung drowning that causes laryngospasms instead of actual water
  4. d seen in genetic disorders called 'glycogen storage disease' and in disorders of glucose and glycogen metabolism; results in excessive vacuolation of cytoplasm (like water); most common cuase is diabetes mellitus; when not storing glucose or glycogen correctly, breakdown in energy of cell
  5. e
    commonly results from ischemic injury to neurons and glial cells in BRAIN; dead brain tissue is readily affected because brain cells are rich in digestive HYDROLITIC ENZYMES and lipids and the brain contains little connective tissue; Cells are digested by their own HYDROLASES so the tissue becomes soft, liquefies and segregates from healthy dtissue, forming cytsts; Can be caused by BACTERIAL INFECTION, especially Staphylococci, Streptococci, and Escherichia coli.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. abnormal changes in the size, shape and organization of mature cells; no considered true adaptive process but is related to hyperplaia and is often called atypical hyperplasia; often encountered in epithelial tissue of the cervix and respiratory tract; can, but not always, turn to cancer; often reversible

  2. developes when NEUTROPHILS invade the site, causing LIQUEFACTIVE necrosis; usually occurs in INTERNAL ORGANS, causing site to beome cold, swollen and black; foul odor is present, and if systemic symptoms become severe, death can ensue; Thrombisis/embolism (blockage of blood), strangulated hernia (no adequate O2 or blood), valvulus (twist of intestine), intussusception (intestine falling into self)

  3. very common w/any hypoxia, even as momentary as leg falling asleep; can be reversed; 1) injury, 2) ATP production decreases, 3) sodium and water move into cell, Potassium moves out of cell, 4) Osmotic pressure increases 5) more water moves into cell, 6) cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum distend, rupture, and form vacuoles, 7) extensive vacuolation, 8) hydropic degeneration
  4. reduced blood supply; often caused by gradual narrowing of arteries (artiosclerosis) and complete blockage by blood clots (thrombosis); progressive hypoxia caused by gradual arterial obstruction is better tlerated than acute anoxia (total lack of oxygen)
  5. usually result of COAGULATIVE necrosis; SKIN becomes very dry and shrinks resulting in wrinkles, and its color changes to dark brown or black;

5 True/False questions

  1. Hyperplasiaan increase in the number of cells resulting from an increased rate of cellular division; as a response to injury, occurs when ijury has been severe and prolonged enough to have caused cell death; cells still relatively uniform, almost normal looking, just more of them; hormonal and pathologic


  2. Cellular Injury
    most diseases begin with cell injury; occurs if the cell is unable to maintain homeostatis in face o finjurious stimulie; may be reverisble or irreversible (die)


  3. Cellular Injury Induced by Ischemia - Irreversible
    membrane damage, 2a) loss of phospholipids, alterations of cytoskeleton, activtation of inflammation (complement, cytokines, and leukocytes), increase free radicals, lipid breakdown; 3a) release of enzymes (CPK, LDH) (end), 3b) increase CA influx; 2b) increase swelling of lysosomes, 3) increased release of lysosomal enzymes (hydrolases), 4) cellular digestion (autodigestion)


  4. Cellular Adaptations(infiltration); intracellular accoumulation of abnormal amounts of various substances and the resultant metabolic disturbances; results not only from sublethal, sustained injury by cells but also result from normal (but inefficient) cell function; Normal cellular substances ( excess water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) or abnormal substance (endogenous - product of abnormalmetabolism or synthesis, exogenous - infectious agents or minerals)


  5. Apoptosisthe sum of cellular changes after local cell death and the process of cellular self-digestion, knon as autodigestion (autolysis); Damage to the plasma membrane and cell structures; 6 Major Types of Necrosis are Coagulative necrosis, Liquefactive Necrosis, Caseous Necrosis, Fat Necrosis and Gangrenous Necrosis


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